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Botany Syllabus Hons 4th year-2013-14

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Botany Syllabus Hons 2nd year : 2009-10

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

GAZIPUR

Syllabus
Department of Botany

Four Year B.Sc. Honours (Integrated) Course
Effective from the Session : 2009-2010


 

Subject: Botany
Syllabus for Four Year B.Sc.Honours Course
Effective from the Session: 2009-2010
Year wise Course, Marks and Credit distribution

Second Year (B.Sc. Honours)

 

Course

Code

Course Title

Marks

Credits

3062

Origin & Evolution of Life and Biodiversity &

Conservation

100

4

3063

Phycology

100

4

3064

Gymnosperms and Palaeobotany

50

2

3070

Botany Practical

50

2

7312

7316

Zoology-II

Zoology Practical-II

100

50

4

2

7282

7283

General Chemistry-II

Environmental Chemistry

100

50

4

2

3096

Viva-Voce

50

2

Total =

650

26

9999

English Compulsory

100

Non-Credit

Course Code

3062

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

Origin & Evolution of Life and Biodiversity

 

 

A : ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF LIFE

  1. Historical framework of the origin and evolution of Life: Pre-Darwinian and post- Darwinian concept.
  2. About the Life: Characteristics, organization and diversity of living things, question of spontaneous generation.
  3. The physical frame of life: The earth’s structure and atmosphere of past and present ages, geological and fossil dating, continents, continental drift and its pre-biotic environment.
  4. The biochemical basis and origin of life: Biochemical basis of life, inorganic and organic molecules and life, origin and evolution of basic biomolecules; theories of origin of life on chemical and biochemical basis.
  5. Proteins and genetic organization: Concept of metabolism and replication, the protein and RNA world, origin and evolution of metabolic and replication process (respiration, photosynthesis and reproduction); origin and evolution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, evidences supporting protein and nucleic acid evolution.
  6. Evolutionary theories: Concept of organic evolution evidences supporting organic evolution; theories of organic evolution- Lamarck; Darwin, Germplasm; evolutionary tree.

Books recommended:

A.I. Oparin, 1957. The Origins of Life on the Earth. (3rd.ed.) Translated by A. Synge : Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh.

S.W. Fox and K. Wose, 1972. Molecular Evolution and Origin of Life. Freeman & Co., San Francisco. A.G. Cirans – Smith. 1982. Genetic Takeover and Mineral Origin of Life. Cambridge Univ. Press. N.Y.

F. Dyson. 1985. Origins of Life. Cambridge University Press., Cambridge.

C. Ponnamperuma and J. Chela – Flores. 1995. Chemical Evolution, Structure and Model of the First Cell. Deepak Publishing, USA.

M.W. Strickberger 2000. Evolution (3rd. ed.). Jones & Bartlett Pub., London.

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B : BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION

1. Introduction: Definition, aims and objectives, different types of Biodiversity.

2. Elementary knowledge: Longitude, latitude and altitude, continental drift, tectonic movement, land

bridge, biogeography and temperate, tropical, tundra and alpine zones of the world and their vegetation.

3. Characterization of biodiversity from ecological perspectives: Species diversity within areas and

species richness, functional diversity, basic principles, micro- biotaersity, World biodiversity hot-spots.

4. Loss of biodiversity: Causes of loss of biodiversity; effect of the degradation of biodiversity; causes of

species extinction

5. Biodiversity in context of Bangladesh: Elementary knowledge on the patterns of biodiversity in Bangladesh.; indigenous, exotic, common, rare threatened and endangered species of Bangladesh; plant introduction in Bangladesh; basic knowledge on plant resources of Bangladesh.

6. Biodiversity conservation: Causes of loss of biodiversity and need of biodiversity conservation.

7. Methods of plant protection and conservation types: In-situ and Ex-situ conservation, role of

national parks and eco-parks, reserve forests, sanctuary, wetland areas, botanic gardens, agriculture

orchard, seed banks and field gene banks of Bangladesh in biodiversity conservation.

8. Conservation values and ethics: Value of biodiversity and conservation ethics.

9. Role and activities: IUCN, WWF, WCMC, UNICEF, EAS and CITES.

10. Introduction to the formation of CBD, Principles and objectives of CBD.

Books Recommended

1. Agrawal, K. C. 1996 : Biodiversity: An Introduction. Agropublication, New Delhi.

2. Gain, P.S. Moral and P. Raj. 1998: Bangladesh-Environment: Pacing the 21st century, SHED, 44/D, West Panthapath, Dhanmondi, Dhaka- 1205, Bangladesh.

3. Heywood, V.H. 1995: Global Biodiversity Assessment (UNEP).

4. Jeffries, M.J. 1997: Biodiversity and Conservation. Routledge, London and New York.

5. Olwell, F.M. 1996: Restoring Biodiversity- Principles and Practice.

6. U.Kumar and M.Asija 2004: Biodoversity: Principles and Conservation.

7. K.W.Krishnamorthy. 2004. An Advanced Text Book on Biodiversity.

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Course Code

3063

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

Phycology

 

 

1. Introduction: Definition, history and scope of Phycology.

2. Algal Habitat: Aquatic (fresh water, brackish and marine) terrestrial and sub-aerial.

3. Classification of algae: Up to Class according to F.E. Fritsch (1946) and R.R. Lee (1989).

4. Pigment and Food: Pigments and reserve food materials in major divisions of Algae.

5. Plastid: Types of chloroplasts of algae and their distribution.

6. Morphology: Range of vegetative structure of algae.

7. Reproduction: Reproduction and perennation in algae.

8. General characteristics, classification up to order and reproduction of the following classes and the study of life history of the genera mentioned against classes:

i) Cyanophyceae: Oscillatoria and Gloeotrichia;

ii) Chlorophyceae: Chlamydomonas, Chlorella, Volvox , Oedogonium and Frischiella;

iii) Charophyceae: Chara;

iv) Euglenophyceae: Euglena;

v) Bacillariophyceae: Navicula and Chaetoceros;

vi) Phaeophyceae: Ectocarpus and Sargassum;

vii) Rhodophyceae: Polysiphonia and Gelidium;

viii) Cryptophyceae: Cryptomonas;

ix) Xanthophyceae: Vaucheria.

9. Growth pattern and nutrition in algae.

10. Origin and evolutionary trends in algae.

11. Phytoplankton: Definition and general characters, floating mechanisms; classification, ecological and biological importance; general composition of fresh water and marine phytoplankton.

12. Importance: Economic and biological importance of freshwater and marine algae including nitrogen economy of nature.

Books Recommended

1. Bold H.C. and M.J. Wynne. 1978: Introduction to the Algae. Prentice Hall, India.

2. Chapman, V.J. and D.J. Chapman. 1973: The Algae. Macmillan, London.

3. Fritsch, F.E. 1946: The Structure and Reproduction in Algae. Vol. 1 & 2, Cambridge Univ. Press.

4. Lee, R.R. 1989: Phycology. Cambridge Univ. Press, UK.

5. Prescott, G.W. 1968: The Algae : A Review. Thomas Nelson, London.

6. Round F.E. 1973: The Biology of Algae. St. Martin’s Press, New York.

7. Round, F.E. 1981: The Ecology of Algae, Cambridge Univ. Press, UK.

8. Smith, G.W. 1950: The Fresh Water Algae of the United States. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., New York.

9. Van dam Hoek, C.D.G. Mann and H.M. Johns. 1996: Algae : An Introduction to Phycology, Cambridge Univ. Press.

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Course Code

3064

Marks: 50

Credits: 2

Class Hours: 30

Course Title:

Gymnosperm and Palaeobotany

 

 

A : Gymnosperm

  1. Introduction: Habit, habitat, characteristic features, origin and evolution, and importance of Gymnosperms.

2. Classification of Gymnosperms.

3. Comparative account of Gymnosperms with pteridophytes and angioperms.

4. Distribution of gymnosperms with reference to Bangladesh and their economic importance.

5. Life history of Cycas, Pinus and Gnetum.

B : Palaeobotany

1. Introduction: Definition and scope of Palaeobotany

2. Types of fossils and fossilization process.

3. Geological time scale of the earth.

4. Appearance and extinction of life forms in different geological periods.

5. Fossil Pteridophytes: Lepidodendron and Calamites.

6. Fossil Gymnosperms: Cycadophilicales- Lygenopteris, Oldhamia, Bennettitales; Cycadeoidea.

Books Recommended

Arnold, C. R. 1977: An Introduction to Palaeobotany. Tata McGraw Hill Pub. House Co., New Delhi. Biswas, C. and B.M. Johri. 1997: The Gymnosperms. Norasa Pub. House, New Delhi.

Caulter, J. M. and C. J. Chamberlain, 1917 (1964): Morphology of Gymnosperms. Central Book Depot,

Allahabad, India.

Mukherji, H. 1997: Plant Groups. New Central Book Agency, Ltd. Calcutta.

Parihar, N.S. 1955: An Introduction to Embryophyta Vol. I & II. Central Book Depot, Allahabad. Sharma, O. P. 1980: Gymnosperms – A treatise, Progati Prakashan, Meerut, India. Smith, G.M. 1955: Cryptogamic Botany. Vol. II, Bryophyta & Pteriodphyta. McGraw Hill Co. London.

Vashishta, P.C. 1994: Botany for Degree Students. Vol. V. Gymnosperms. S. Chand and Co. Ltd.

Ramnagar, New Delhi.

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Course Code

3070

Marks: 50

Credits: 2

 

Course Title:

BOTANY PRACTICAL

 

 

Origin and Evolution of Life: 5 marks Anatomical evidences of evolutionary trends.

Biodiversity Practical: 15 marks

1. Study of different life forms in a suitable place.

2. Analysis of species diversity in an area.

3. Identification of at least 50 species of different plant groups in an around the institution.

4. Collection and preservation of different groups of plants, herbarium specimen preparation technique.

5. Study of crop genetic variations and resources of an area.

Phycology : 15 Marks

  1. Local excursion is to be arranged to show and collect algae from different habitats. Collected algae are to be studied in the practical classes.

2. Techniques of preserving algae collected from various habitats

3. Study of the algal genera covered in the theory with special emphasis to their vegetative, reproductive structures and ecological features.

Gymnosperms and Palaeobotany : 15 Marks Study of museum specimens.

Detailed study including dissection, mountings, description, drawing and identification of Cycas and Pinus sp.

Study of fossil plants.


 

Course Code

7282

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

Chemistry - II

Exam Duration: 4 Hours

 

1. Nonmetals: General properties of nonmetals, ortho and para hydrogen molecules, allotropy of carbon, catenation, halogens and their basic properties, chemistry of noble gases.

2. Metals: Metallic bond, electron sea theory of metallic bond, characteristics of metals, band theory of conductivity, conductors, semiconductors and insulators, transition metals and inner transition metals colour and magnetism in transition metal chemistry.

3. Energy changes in chemical Reactions: System and surroundings, open system and closed system, thermodynamics, state functions, the first law of thermodynamics, the concept of internal energy and enthalpy, measurement of enthalpy changes, enthalpy of formation, Hess’s law, lattice enthalpy, Born-Haber cycle, second law of thermodynamics, entropy and free energy.

4. Rates of chemical Reactions: Reaction rate, rate constant, rate law, order of reactions, first order reaction, half life, order and molecularity, effect of temperature on the rate of reaction, collision theory and reaction rates, activation energy, Arrhenius equation.

5. Electrochemistry: Redox reactions, electrolytic and galvanic cells, cell notation, standard reduction potentials, emf of cells, the effect of concentration of cell emf, batteries, corrosion.

6. Catalysis: Catalyst, homogeneous catalysis, enzyme catalysis, auto catalysis.

7. Solids: Properties of solids, crystalline and amorphous solids, distinction between crystalline and amorphous solids, isomorphism, polymorphism and allotropy, crystal lattice unit cell crystal systems Bragg’s law.

8. Coordination Chemistry: Coordination compounds, ligands, coordination number, nomenclature, structures of complex compounds, Werner’s primary and secondary valency concept, sidwick’s electronic concept, valence bond theory, stability of coordination compounds.

9. Aromatic Compounds: Aromaticity aromaticity of benzene, Electrophillic aromatic substitution reactions with reference to nitration halogention, sulphonation and alkylation. Heterocyclic compounds: Pyrrole, furan, thiophene, pyridine.

10. Organic reactions: Brief study on Electrophilic addition, Nucleophilic addition, Elimination reaction, condensation reaction, oxidation, and reduction reactions and organic compounds. Mechanism and application of the following reactions, Friedel Craft reaction, Clemmenson reduction, Wolf Krishner reduction, Perkin reaction, Claisen reaction, Cannizzaro reaction and Aldol condensation.

11. Carbohydrates: Definition, classification, structure and reactions of monosacchanides. Polysaccharide-cellulose and strach.

12. Amino Acids: Structures classification, synthesis physical and chemical properties of amino acids.

13. Polymer Chemistry: Polymers homopolymer, heteropolymer, low density and high density polymer, copolymers, studies of some polymers- polyvinylchloride, nylon 66, silk and wool.

Books Recommended:

 

 

1.

 

General Chemistry , D.D. Ebbing Houghton Miffin Co.

2.

 

Chemistry – The Moleceular Nature of Matter and Change, M. silberberg, WCB/ Mc Graw-Hill.

 

3.

Introduction to Modern Inorganic Chemistry, S.Z. Haider, Friends International.

4.

 

Selected Topics on Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, S. Z. Haider, Students’ publication

5.

 

Modern Inorganic Chemistry, R.D. Madan, S. Chand & company Ltd.

 

6. Selected Topics in Inorganic Chemistry, W.U. Malik, G. D. Tuli and R.D. Madan, S. Chand & Company Ltd.

7. Organic Chemistry by T Morison and RN bayed

8. Fundamental of organic Chemistry by salomans

9. Organic Chemistry Vot I& II IL fair

10. Basic Inorganic Chemistry, F.A. Cotton,G. Wilkinson, and P. L. Gaus, John willey & Sons.

11. Principles of physical chemistry, M. M. Huque and M. A. Nawab, students’ publications.


 

Course Code

7283

Marks: 50

Credits: 2

Class Hours: 30

Course Title:

Environmental Chemistry

Exam Duration:2.5Hours

 

1. Environment: Introduction components of environment, factors affecting environment, environmental management, environment and health, environmental chemistry, segments of environment – atmosphere hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere, structure of atmosphere.

2. Pollution and Pollutants: Pollution, environmental pollution, pollutant, classification of pollutants, types of pollution PCBS and their sources and hazards, Detection & estimation of PCBS. Biomultification.

3. Air Pollution: Introduction air quality, major sources of air pollution, gaseous pollutants, acid rain- how acid rain is formed, adverse effects of acid rain, greenhouse effect- how the greenhouse effect is produced, consequences of greenhouse effect and global warming EL Nino phenomenon and its effect, ozone depletion, mechanism of ozone depletion, effects of ozone depletion.

4. Water Pollution: Introduction, classification of water pollutants, physical, chemical and biological characteristics of wastewater, industrial wastewater treatment, municipal water treatment, water quality parameters and standards, measurements of important parameters such as PH, DO, BOD, COD and temperature for water quality assessments.

5. Soil Pollution: Composition of soil, importance of soil to the biosphere, sources of soil pollution, effects of soil pollution- synthetic fertilizer and pesticides, effects of industrial effluents, effects of urban wastes, control of soil pollution.

6. Heavy metals in the Environment: trace metals, light metals and heavy metals, deadly heavy metals, sources of heavy metals, biochemical effects, toxicity, toxicology, control and treatment of mercury, chromium, arsenic and lead.

Books Recommended:

1. Environmental Chemistry, B.K. Sharma, Goel Publishing House.

2. Environmental Chemistry, AK. De New Age International Publishers.

3. Environmental Chemistry, S.E. Manahan, CRC Press.

4. A Textbook of Environmental Chemistry and Pollution Control, S.S. Bara S. Chand & Company Ltd.


 

Course Code

7312

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

Zoology -II

Exam Duration: 4 Hours

 

Group – A: Chordates: (50 Marks)

1. Broad classification of the following up to order with general and diagnostic characteristics of each taxonomic category with examples (preferably local) and affinities‑

Chondriththyes, Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia.

2. Type study of the following with their systematic position, habitats, distribution, external morphology, anatomy including skeletal, digestive, circulatory, respiratory, excretory, nervous, reproductive and endocrine systems; food & feeding habits and mode of life -

a. Urachordata : Ascidia

b. Cephalochordata : Branchiostoma

c. Cephalaspimorpha: Petromyzon

d. Chondrichthyes : Scoliodon

e. Osteichthyes : Labeo rohita

f. Amphibia : Bufo/Rana

g. Reptilia : Hemidactylus

h. Aves : Columba livia

i. Mammalia : Cavia porcellus.

Group – B

Palaeontology, Zoogeography, Ecology, (50 Marks)

Genetics & Animal Breeding and Applied Zoology:

Palaeontology:

Geologocal time table; palaeontological history of Horse & Man.

Zoogeography:

Zoogeographical regions and sub-regions of the world: Nearctic Region, Ethiopean Region, Neotropical

Region-their boundaries, physical characteristics, climatic conditions, vegetation and fauna.

Ecology:

Marine ecology; Zonations and Animal Adaptation to Different Zonations; Concept of Biodiversity; Conservation of Natural Resources; Concept and Classification of Resources; Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources.

Animal Genetics & Animal Breeding:

Modification of Mendelian ratio with animal examples; multiple alleles and pseudoalleles; mutation; chromosomal inheritance of sex determination.

Applied Zoology :

  1. Introduction to the major fields of Applied Zoology: Entomology, Fisheries, Wildlife Biology, Parasitology and others.

2. Agricultural Pests: Major Pests of Rice, Jute, Sugarcane & stored grain.

3. Integrated Fish Farming: Types; Poultry, Livestock and Paddy-cum -Fish Culture.

 

4. Poultry farming: System of poultry farming, diseases of poultry and their control, economic importance of poultry and their impacts on socio-economic condition of Bangladesh.

Books Recommended

1. D. Webster and M. Webster. 1974. Comparative Vertebrate Morphology, Academic Press New York.

2. I. Young. 1981. Life of Vertebrates. OUP, USA

3. K.V. Kardong. 1997. Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution Wm. C. Brown

4. S. Stearus and R. Hoekstra. 2000. Evolution An Introduction OUP USA

5. A.J.Cain 1996. Animal Species and Their Evolution Princeton UP. USA

6. A.M. Davis. An introduction to palacontology

7. S. Bengtson. 1995 Early Life on Earth Columbia UP, USA

8. R.S. Lull. 1976. Organic Evolution Seema Publishing Delhi 11007

9. P.J. Darlington. 1998. Zoogeography. The Geographical Distribution of Animals. Krieger. USA

10. M. Begon J.L. Harper and C.R. Townsend. 1996. Ecology. Individuals Populations.

11. E.P. Odan Fundamentalsof Ecology. Saunders. Philadelphia

12. E.W. Sinnot. L.C. Dunn and Dobzhansky Principles of Genetics. McGraw Hill Book Co. New York

13. R.E. Weaver and P.W. Hedrick 1995. Basic Genetics Wm. C. Brown Publisher. Dubuque. lowa.

14. E. Mayr and P.D. Ashlock. 1997. Principles of Syatematic Zoology McGraw Hill

15. Kapoor. Taxonomy

16. Dennis S. Hill 1997. The economic importance of insects (1st edition)Chapman and Half. London

17. D. Dent. Pest Management Chapman & Hall London

18. P.Southgate and J.Lucas (Editors), 1998. Aquaculture: Fish and Shellfish Farming Fishing News.

19. A Midlen and T.A. Reading 1998. Pollution Control and Environmental Management for Aquaculture. Chapman & hall

20. M.R. Ross. 1996. Fisheries Conservation and Management Prentice Hall

21. R.Wall and D. Shearer, 1997 Veternary Entomology Chapman & Hall

22. V.G. Jhingran and R.S.V. Pullin 1985. A Hatchery Manual for the Common Chinese and Indian Major Carps. ADB/ICLARM

23. T.V.R Pillay. 1993. AquaculturePrinciples and Practices Fishing News Books.

24. J.E. Bardach J.H. Ryther and W.O. McLarncy. 1972. Aquaculture The Farming and Husbandry of Freshwater and Marine Organisms. John Wiley & Sons.

25. B. Groombridge (Editor). Global Biodiversity-status of the Earth’s Living Resources. Chapman and Hall London.

26. K.J. Gaston and J.I. Spicer. 1998 Biodiversity An Introduction Blackwell Science.

27. M. Jeffries. 1997. Biodiversity and Conservation. Routledge

28. O.S. Owen, Natural Resource Conservation. An Ecological Approach Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc.

29. P. Wathern (Editor). 1990. Environmental Impact Assessment: Theory and Practice, Routledge.

30. P.S. Maitland and N.C. Morgan. 1997. Conservation Management of Freshwater Habitats: Lakes. Rivers and Wetlands. Chapman & Hall

31. S.M. Manton and M.E. Brown 1969. A Manual of Practical Vertebrate Morphology. Oxford Univ. Press, London

32. W.F Walker. 1980. Vertebrate Dissection. W.B. Saunders Co. London.


 

Course Code

7316

Marks: 50

Credits: 2

Course Title:

Zoology II Practical

 

 

1. Study of Museum Specimens: Representative of all major Non-Chordate and Chordate phyla (at least 25+25 = 50 specimens to be studied)

2. Study of Permanent Slides: Whole mount, body parts, various cells & tissues and different larvae (at least 20 slides to be studied).

3. Study of Bones: Comparative study of the skeleton of an amphibian, reptile, a bird and a mammal.

4. External morphology and Dissection of various organ systems of Non Chordates - Earthworm, Cockroach, Prawn and Pila:

a. Circulatory system of Earthworm and Prawn.

b. Nervous system of Earthworm, Cockroach, Prawn.

c. Reproductive system of Earthworm, Cockroach and Prawn.

5. Dissection: Dissection of the following Chordate Specimens‑

Bufo/ any Carp - Brain and Cranial Nerves.

Lata fish-Afferent and Efferent Blood Vessels

Lizard - Circulatory System.

6. Fresh Water Studies: Identification of plankton and benthic microfauna in fresh water samples.

Distribution of Marks for the Final Examination

1. Dissection : One item (Non Chordate) 1 item x 9 = 09 Marks (Dissection – 4, display – 2, drawing & labeling - 3)

2. Dissection : One item (Chordate) 1x 9 = 09 Marks (Dissection – 4, display – 2, drawing & labeling – 3)

3. Spotting of Museum Specimens : 9 items 9x2 = 18 Marks (Invertebrate Museum Specimen – 3 items x2 = 06,

Vertebrate Museum Specimen – 3 items x2 = 06,

Histological Slides – 2 slides x2 = 04 (1 from Protozoa, Non-Chordates Bones 1 bone x2 = 02) and 1

from Chordates

4. Fresh Water Studies: 2 specimens x 2 marks for each

= 04 Marks (2 micro species to be shown – Identification and 1,

characters 1 mark)

5. Class Records: = 06 Marks

6. An extensive oral test will be taken during practical examination session: = 04 Marks

Total = 50 Marks.

 

Course Code

3196

Marks: 50

Credits: 2

Course Title

Viva Voce

Course Code

9999

Marks: 100

Non-Credit

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

English (Compulsory)

Exam Duration: 4 Hours

 

Aims and objectives of this course: To develop students’ English language skills, to enable them to benefit personally and professionally. The four skills ~ listening, speaking, reading and writing will be integrated to encourage better language use.

1. Reading and understanding 5×4=20

Students will be expected to read passages that they might come across in their everyday life, such as newspapers, magazines, general books etc. Simple stories will also be included to give students a familiarity with different uses of the language.

[N.B. : 5 Questions are to be answered. Each question will carry 4 marks. There may be division in each question]

a) Understanding different purposes and types of readings

b) Guessing word-meaning in context.

c) Understanding long sentences

d) Recognizing main ideas and supporting ideas.

e) Answering comprehension questions.

f) Writing summaries.

2. Writing 40

a) Writing correct sentences, completing sentences and combining sentences. 5

b) Situational writing : Posters, notices, slogans, memos, advertisements etc. 4

c) Paragraph writing : Structure of a paragraph; topic sentences; developing ideas; writing a conclusion; types of paragraphs (narrative, descriptive, expository, persuasive); techniques of paragraph development (such as listing, cause and effect, comparison and contrast). 8

Or,

d) Newspaper writing : Reports, press releases dialogues etc.

e) Writing resumes. Or, 8

f) Writing letters : Formal and informal letters, letters to the editor, request letters, job applications, complaint letters etc.

g) Essay : Generating ideas; outlining; writing a thesis sentence; writing the essay: writing introductions, developing ideas, writing conclusions; revising and editing. 15

3. Grammar 25

a) Word order of sentences.

b) Framing questions.

c) Tenses, articles, subject-verb agreement, noun-pronoun agreement, verbs, phrasal verbs, conditionals, prepositions and prepositional phrases, infinitives, participles, gerunds. (Knowledge of grammar will be tested through contextualised passages).

d) Punctuation.

4. Developing vocabulary : Using the dictionary, suffixes, prefixes, synonyms, antonyms, changing

word forms (from verb to noun etc.) and using them in sentences. 10

5. Translation from Bengali to English : 1x 5=5

6. Speaking skills : Speaking skills should be integrated with writing and reading in classroom

activities.

The English sound system; pronunciation skills; the IPA system; problem sounds, vowels, consonants and dipthongs; lexical and syntactic stress.

(Writing dialogue and practising it orally students can develop their speaking skill. Dialogue writing can be an item in writing test.)

 

Botany Syllabus Hons 3rd year- 2009-10

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

 


Syllabus

Department of Botany

Detailed Syllabus of Third Year

Four Year B.Sc. Honours (Integrated) Course

Effective from the Session:2009-2010

National University

Syllabus for Four Year BA Honours Course

Subject: Botany

Third Year Honours

 

Course Code

Course Title

Marks

Credits

3072

Plant Pathology

50

2

3073

Taxonomy

100

4

3074

Economic Botany, Ethnobotany and Pharmacognosy

100

4

3075

Embryology and Palynology

100

4

3076

Anatomy and Cytology & Cytogenetics

100

4

3077

Genetics and Microbial Genetics

100

4

3078

Agronomy & Horticulture and Aforestation

100

4

3079

Practical - I

75

3

3080

Practical – II

75

3

800

32


Course Code

3072

Marks: 50

Credits: 2

Class Hours: 30

Course Title:

Plant Pathology

 

1. Introduction: History of Plant Pathology, concept of disease in plants, causes, diagnosis, classification and importance of plant disease.

2. Methods of studying unknown disease; Koch’s postulates.

3. Parasitism and disease development: Parasitism and pathogenesis, stages in the development of plant disease- inoculation, penetration, infection, growth and reproduction, dissemination, over wintering and over summering of the pathogen.

4. Symtomalogy: Viral, bacterial and fungal disease symptoms.

5. Toxins in relation to plant disease:

a) Types of toxins -pathtoxinns, vivotoxins and phytotoxin

b) Host specific and non-specific toxins

c) Effect of toxins on plant disease.

6. Host defense against pathogens: Structural and biochemical defense.

7. Principles of plant disease management: Forecasting of plant diseases; regulatory, physical, cultural, chemical and biological methods of disease management.

8. Chemical control of plant diseases: Nature of chemical compounds in control of plant diseases - copper, mercury and sulphur compounds; spraying, dusting, seed treatment and soil treatment.

9. Selected fungal diseases of crop plants: Causal organisms, symptoms, disease cycle and control measures of the following:-

i) Tikka disease of Ground nut; ii) stem rot, anthracnose and black band of Jute; iii) late blight and early blight of Potato; iv) rust and leaf spot of Bean; v) brown spot, stem rot and blast of Rice, vi) red rot of Sugarcane; vii) stem rust and loose smut of Wheat.

10. Selected bacterial diseases of crop plants: Characteristics and classification of plant pathogenic bacteria, mode of action of bacteria on host tissues. Causal organism, symptoms and etiology and control measures of the following diseases of plants:-

i) Angual leaf spot of cotton; ii) Bacterial blight of rice; iii) Citrus canker, wilt of tomato; iv) Soft rot of potato.

11. Viral diseases of plants: Symptoms, causal organisms, vectors ad control measures of the following diseases-

i) Tungro disease of Rice, ii) bunchy top of Banana; iii)Vein clearing of Lady’s finger, iv) leaf curl of Tomato, v) mosaic of Bean.

Books Recommended

  1. Agrios, G.N. 1997: Plant Pathology (4th Ed.). Academic Press, London.
  2. Fahy, P.C. and G.J. Persley. 1993: Plant Bacterial Disease. A Diagnostic Guide. Acad. Press, London.
  3. Mehrotra, R.S. 1980: Plant Pathology. Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Com., Ltd. New Delhi.
  4. Rangaswami, G. 1972: Diseases of Crop Plants in India. Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
  5. Singh, R.S. 1978 : Plant Diseases. Oxford & IBH Pub. Co., New Delhi.
  6. Lvb, G.G. 2000 : c­v›U c¨v‡_vjwR, †`vjb Puvcv, KvRx cÖKvkbx, XvKv|


 


Course Code

3073

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

Taxonomy

 

********

1. Characteristics of angiosperms and their differences from gymnosperms and pteridophytes

2. Taxonomy and Systematics: Definition, basic components, needs, principles and units of classification, aims and objectives of plant taxonomy.

3. Development of plant classification: Pre-Darwinian and Post Darwinian classification, comparison among the contemporary systems of classifications.

4. Origin and evolution of Angiosperms: Origin and phylogeny of Magnoliopsida and Liliopsida.

5. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN): Brief history, names of taxa, publication, principles of priority, type method, author’s citation and name changes.

6. The herbarium: Herbarium and its importance, field and herbarium techniques, important herbaria of Bangladesh and World.

7. Concept of taxonomic characters: Good and bad characters, exomorphic and endomorphic characters, taxonomic and diagnostic characters.

8. Chemotaxonomy: Primary and secondary metabolites, semantids in taxonomy.

9. Cytotaxonomy: Chromosomal characters used in taxonomy and their significance.

10. Numerical Taxonomy: Principles, analysis and construction of dendrogram.

11. Role of taxonomy and phylogeny of angiosperms:-

1. Primitive and advanced characters of angiosperms

2. Differences between monocot and dicot plants.

12. Identifying characters and phylogeny of the following families and scientific names of five important plants of each family.;

A) Magnoliopsida (Dicots): Magnolaceae, Casuarinaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Tiliaceae, Rubiaceae,

Rutaceae,Lamiaceae, Polygonaceae,Euphorbiaceae,Acanthaceae,Moraceae,and Cucurbitaceae.

b) Liliopsida (Monocots): Alismataceae, Typhaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae, Araceae, Poaceae and

Cyperaceae.

Books Recommended

  1. Cronquist, A. 1968: The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants. Houghton, Miflin Co. Mass, USA.
  2. Davis, P. H. and V. H. Heywood. 1963: Principles of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Oliver Boyd, Edinburgh & London.
  3. Lawrence, G.H.M. 1951: Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. The Macmillan Co. New York.
  4. Radford, A. E. 1974: Vascular Plant Systematics. Harper & Row Publisher, New York.
  5. Stace, C. A. 1989: Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics (2nd ed.). Edward Arnold, London.
  6. G.Singh 2004. Plant Systematics: Theory and Practice (2nd ed.) Oxford &IBH Pub.Co. New Delhi
  7. nvmvb, Gg. G. Ges Gg. †K. Avjg. 1997 : Dw™¢` †kªYxweb¨vm ZË¡ (3q ms¯‹iY), nvmvb eyK nvDm, XvKv|


 


Course Code

3074

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

Economic Botany, Ethnobotany and Pharmacognosy

 

A. Economic Botany and Ethnobotany

Economic Botany

  1. Scientific and local names, Part/s used and importance of 10 important plants of each of the following groups: Cereals, pulses, oil; fiber; timber, fruit, vegetables, spices and aromatic plants.
  2. Tea: cultivation and processing
  3. Rubber: cultivation and processing.

Books Recommended

  1. Albert, F.H. 1972: Economic Botany. Tata McGraw Hill Pub. Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
  2. Hill, A.F. 1951: Economic Botany, Tata McGraw Hill Pub. Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
  3. Pandey, B.P. 1978: Economic Botany S. Chand and Co., New Delhi.
  4. nvmvb, Gg.G. 1996: evsjv‡`‡ki †flR Dw™¢`, Avkivwdqv eB Ni, evsjv evRvi, XvKv|

Ethnobotany

Introduction: Definition, current concept and scope, main subjects of ethnobotany, aims and objectives of ethnobotanical studies.

Origin and development of the branch, Present and past of ethnobotanical research in Bangladesh.

Methods of ethnobotanical research: sources of data, protocol, research design, ethnobotanical methods for documentation of data, data collection and transcription.

Sacred plants: plants used in religion and mythology.

Ethnobotany of the tribes of Bangladesh: Chakma, Garo, Marma, Sawtal, Tripura.

6. Indigenous Knowledge (IK): Definition, plant related indigenous knowledge, types and sources of indigenous knowledge, IK in folklore, folktales, folksongs and proverbs, importance of IK.

Books Recommended:

1. Alexiades MN. 1996. Selected Guidelines for Ethnobotanical Research: A Field Manual.

2. Cotton, C. M. 1997. Ethnobotany, Principals and Application. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester, UK.

3. Jain, S. K. 1989. Methods and approaches of ethnobotany. Society of Ethnobiology, Lucknow, India.

4. Jain, S. K. 1989. Methods and approaches of ethnobotany. Society of Ethnobiology, Lucknow, India.

5. Martin, G. J. 1995. Ethnobotany: A methods manual. Chapman & Hall, London.

4. nvmvb, Gg.G. 1996: evsjv‡`‡ki †jvKR e‡bŠlwa, nvmvb eyK nvDm, evsjv evRvi WvKv|

5. cvj, wW.wm. 1999: †jvK Dw™¢` we`¨v| cwðge½ ivR cy¯—Kcl©`|

B. Pharmacognosy

  1. Introduction: Definition, its relation to herbal medicine, pharmacology, pharmacopoeia; medicinal and non-medicinal plants, herbal, alternative or complementary medicine.
  2. Non-medicinal plants – hallucinogen, allergenic, teratogenic and other toxic plants, plants with pesticide properties.
  3. Drug, medicine and poisons – their definitions and differences.
  4. Classification of drugs with examples: a. alphabetic, b. morphological, c. taxonomical, d. chemical and e. pharmacological.
  5. Major 10 -indigenous medicinal plants of Bangladesh, their scientific names, plant parts used as drug source.
  6. Primary and secondary metabolites of plants and their relations to drug principle.
  7. Preparatory methods of herbal medicine- a. whole plant or plant parts, b. fine abstract.
  8. Cultivation and improvement of production of medicinal plants and active drug principles: a agronomical and, b. biotechnological means.
  9. Name of important drugs, principles of plant origin with plant source and use of atropine, codine, digitoxin, disogenin, hyoscyamine, scopolamine, reserpine.
  10. Conservation of the medicinal plants of Bangladesh: ways and importance.

Books recommended:

1. A. Ghani. 2002. A Text Book of Pharmacognosy. Asiatic Society, Bangladesh.

2. A. Ghani. 2003. Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh. Asiatic Society, Bangladesh.

3. M. Ali. 2002. Text book of Pharmacognosy, CBS Pub. New Delhi, India.

4. Phil. B. Fontanarosa (Edt.). 2000. Alternative medicine- an objective assessment. J. Fraukos, USA (AMA).

5. W.C. Evans. 2003. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, ELBS, UK,.

6. G. Mwb. 1995. †flR weÁvb, evsjv GKv‡Wwg, evsjv‡`k|

7. G. Mwb. 1999. †flR imvqb, evsjv GKv‡Wwg, evsjv‡`k|

 


Course Code

3075

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

Embryology and Palynolology

 

A . Embryology

1. Introduction: Definition, historical background of Embryology.

2. Mirosporophyll: Microsporangium, microsporogenesis and formation of male gametophyte.

3. Megasporophyll: Megasporangium, megasporogenesis and formation of female gametophyte.

4. Types of development of different types of embryo sac.

5. Pollination and fertilization process, and formation of seed.

6. Endosperm: Types of endosperm formation- Nuclear, cellular and helobial, mosaic endosperm, nature.

7. Embryogenesis: Development of dicot and monocot embryos, polyembryony and its importance

8. Apomixis: Causes, types and significance of apomixis

9. Embryology in relation to taxonomy: Embryological characters in taxonomic significance.

Books Recommended

Maheswari, P. 1950: An Introduction to the Embryology of Angiosperms. Tata McGraw Hill Pub. Co. Ltd. Bombay, New Delhi.

cvkv, Gg. †K., 2006: Dw™¢` åƒYweÁvb, Kwei cvewj‡KkÝ, XvKv|

B. Palynology

Introduction: Historical review, fundamentals, branches, scope and application.

Palynomorphology: Pollen grain- wall, development, character, morphology (primary, secondary and tertiary characters); sporoderm stratification, NPC-system, evolutionary aspect of pollen and spores, palynotaxonomical aspects, pollen flora.

Melissopalynology: Bee and bee foraging, pollen load, pollen in honey, identification of bee flora and preparation of bee flora calendar, marker pollen, bee flora- importance and management.

Aeropalynology: Principles, pollen productivity, buoyancy, frequency, dissemination, distribution and dispersion principles, pollen as pollutants, scope and importance.

Palayopalynology: Principles, microfossils, reconstruction of vegetation; relation with archaeology and palaeobotany, tracing of pollen in geological era, scope and importance.

Pharmacopalynology: Pollen in nutrition and health, allergy in forensic medicine, scope and importance.

Biogenic palynology: Pollen as biological material, relation to agriculture, horticulture and plant improvement.

Books recommended:

K. Faegri and J. Iversen. 1990: A Text Book of Modern Pollen Analysis. Copenhagen.

P.K.K. Nair, 1985: Essentials of Panynology. Asia Publishing House. New Delhi.

G. Erdman, 1952: Pollen Morphology & Plant Taxonomy, Waltham Mass, USA.

G. Erdtman 1954: An Introduction to Pollen Analysis. Waltham Mass, USA.

M.R. Saxena, 1993: Palynology – A treatise, Oxford & IBH Pub., New Delhi.

A.K.Shukla, M.R.Vijoyraghvan and B.Choudhury. 1998. Biology of Pollen. A.P.H. Pub. Corp. Ne Delhi.

K.R.Shivanna 2005. Pollen Biology and Biotechnology. Oxford & IBH Pub.Comp. New Delhi.

K.Bhattachrya, M,R.Majumder & S.G.Bhattacharya. 2008. An introduction to Palynology, New Central Book Agency. New Delhi.

R.B.Knox.1979. Pollen and Allergy. Edward Arnold. London.

cvkv, Gg. †K. 2008: civM‡iYy weÁvb, evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv|

 


Course Code

3076

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

Anatomy, Cytology and Cytogenetics

 

A. PLANT ANATOMY

Cell and Cell wall: Origin, development, gross and ultra-structure and different types of thickenings. The middle lamella– origin development, structure and functions, sculpture, modification and chemical nature of cell wall.

Meristematic tissues: Origin, classification and differentiation; theories related to differentiation of apical meristem; apical cell theory and Tunica-corpus theory, modification of Tunica-corpus concept.

Permanent tissue: Structure and function of parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma; Secretory and excretory tissues- glandular and laticiferous.

Primary structure of stem, root and leaf.

Normal secondary growth in dicot stem and root: Formation of annual rings, heart wood, sap wood and formation of periderm.

Anomalous secondary growth: In the stem of Boerhaavia, Amaranthus and Dracaena.

Root-stem transition in plants.

Stomata: Definition, origin, development, types, structure and function.

Books Recommended

Cutter, E.G. 1969: Plant Anatomy. Part I & II. Edward Arnold Pub., UK.

Eames, A. J. and L. H. MacDaniels. 1947: An Introduction to Plant Anatomy. McGraw Hill Pub. Co., New York.

Esau, K. 1953 : Plant Anatomy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

Fahn, A. 1969: Plant Anatomy. Pergamon Press.

B. CYTOLOGY AND CYTOGENETICS

1. Introduction: Definition, historical background of cytology.

2. Concept of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and their differences.

3. Ultra-structure of eukaryotic cell: Detailed structure and function of cell organelles, chloroplast and mitochondria, ribosome, lysosome, endoplasmic reticulum, golgibody and nucleus.

4. Physical and chemical structure of chromosome: Structure and chemical nature of chromatin; nucleosome -shape and organization up to chromosome; histone – physicochemical characters; non-histone proteins.

5. Cell division: Mitosis and cell cycle; meiosis and reproductive cycle.

6. Special type of chromosome: a) Salivary gland chromosome; b) Lamp-brush chromosome, c) B-chromosome and d) Synaptenemal complex.

Books Recommended

Dupraw, E. J. 1970: DNA and Chromosomes, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.

Gupta, M. L. and M. L. Jangir. 1998: Cell Biology: Fundamentals and Applications, Agro Botanika, New Delhi.

Sharma, A. 1976: The Chromosomes. Oxford & IBH Pub. Co., New Delhi.

Wilson, G. B. and J. H. Morrison. 1966: Cytology. Litton Educational Pub. Inc., New York.

Rvgvb, Gg. G. 1975 : †Kvlwe`¨v, evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv|

mywnZ ¸n. 1978 : mvB‡UvjwR. cwðg e½ ivR¨ cy¯—K cl©`|

C. CYTOGENETICS

1. Introduction: Definition, scope of Cytogenetics.

2. Chromosomal aberration: A general account and classification.

3. Deletion: Definition, kinds, genetic detection, phenotypic and genotypic effects, breakage –fusion bridge cycle (Meiotic behavior).

4. Duplication: Definition, kinds, genetic detection, position effect.

5. Inversion: Definition, kinds, synopsis in inversion heterozygote, consequences of 2-strands, 3-strands and 4-strands double cross over (one extra and another intra loop) of a paracentric inversion heterozygote.

6. Translocation: Definition, kinds, different kinds of orientation and configurations of reciprocal translocation, heterozygote at MI, formation of different gametes from those configuration, identification of chromosomes, involved in translocation.

7. Chromosomal basis of inheritance: Gene concept and chromosomal theory of inheritance, Parallelism between chromosomal and genetic segregation.

8. Architecture of Chromosome: Chromosome of proto-cell, plasmids, episomes, euchromatins and heterochromatins.

9. Polyploidy: Definition, classification, polyploidy in plants (natural and artificial), artificial induction of polyploidy and its significance in crop improvement.

Books Recommended

Akhtaruzzaman, M. 1997: Koshbidhya (3rd. Ed.), Hassan Book House, Dhaka.

Akhtaruzzaman, M. 1997: Kosh-Bangshagatibidhya, Bangla Academy, Dhaka.

Garber, E.D. 1992: Cytogenetics, McGraw Hill inc., New York.

Moore, D.M. 1976: Plant Cytogenetics. Chapman and Hall Ltd., England.

Schulz-Schaeffer, J. 1980: Cytogenetics. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Sinha, U. and S. Sinha. 1997 : Cytogenetics, Plant Breeding and Evolution. Vikas Pub. House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

Swaminathan, M.S., P.K. Gupta and U. Sinha. 1983: Cytogenetics of Crop plants. MacMillan Ltd., New Delhi.

Swanson, C.P., T. Merz and W.J. Young. 1982: Cytogenetics: The Chromosomes in Division, Inheritance and Evolution. (3rd. Ed.). Reprint. Prentice Hall of India. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

Avn‡g`, mvgmywÏb, 2000 : mvB‡Uv‡R‡bwUKm&| evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv|


 


Course Code

3077

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

Genetics and Microbial Genetics

 

GENETICS AND MICROBIAL GENETICS

1. Mendelian principles: Mendel’s law of inheritance; exception of Mendel’s laws.

2 .Physical and chemical basis of heredity. Chromosome and DNA as the basis.

Interaction of genes: Complementary, duplication, epistatic and additive gene interaction, complete and incomplete dominance in Snapdragon (3:6:3:1:2:1:1).

Linkage and crossing over: Linked gene and recombination in linked gene; gene mapping in diploid; gene sequences, interference and coincidence.

Sex determination: Chromosomal and genetic basis of sex determination; sex linked, sex limited and sex influenced characters.

Allelism and pleiotropism: Multiple and pseudoalleles, pleiotropism

Quantitave inheritance: Pur line and multiple factor hypothesis, polygenic inheritance.

Fine structure of gene: Chemical concept of gene, development of the concept of cistron, recon, muton.

Biochemical genetics: Gene-protein relationship, one gene-one enzyme hypothesis, isolation of biochemical mutation.

Mutation: Discovery, causes and classification of mutation, role of mutation in evolution, CIB, detection of autosomal mutation, biochemical mutants- prototrophs and auxotroph selection, auxotroph classification.

Cytoplasmic inheritance: Inheritance of variegated leaves in higher plants, inheritance of extranuclear genes, maternal inheritance, general idea of plasmid and episome.

Population genetics: - Hardy-Weinberg law and its conditions, forces of evolution.

Mating systems in bacteria: Partial genetic transfer, conjugation, transduction, transformation and extra- chromosomal elements and inheritance in Bacteria (Plasmids).

Books Recommended

Benjamin Lewin. 2000: Gene 2000. Oxford University Press , NY.

Gordner, E.J. 1960: Principles of Genetics. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, London.

Singleton, W.R. 1967: Elementary Genetics. D. Von Nostrand Co., Inc., Canada.

Sinnot, E.W., L.C. Dunn and Th. Dobzlaansky. 1985: Principles of Genetics. (5th ed.). McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., New York, London.

Snustad, D.P., et al. : Principles of Genetics, John Willey & Sons, Inc.

Strickberger, M.W. 1996: Genetics. MacMillan Pub. Co. Inc., New York, London.

Whitehouse, H.L.K. 1973: Towards and Understanding of the Mechanism of Heredity, Edward Arnold. England.

Bmjvg, G. Gm. 1984 : eskMwZ we`¨vi g~j K_v, evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv|

AvLZvi“¾vgvb, g. : eskMwZ we`¨v, nvmvb eyK nvDR, XvKv|

 


Course Code

3078

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

Agronomy, Horticulture and Aforestation

 

Introduction: Definition and scope of Agronomy and Horticulture and Aforestation

Tillage: Purpose, types, merits and demerits, agricultural implements.

Fertilizer: Classification of fertilizers and its application, manures, irrigation.

Cropping: Crops and cropping, Mono- and multiple relay intercropping and mixed cropping, cropping system, and crop rotation.

Botany, cultivation and management of crops: Rice, Wheat, Jute, Sugarcane, cotton and mustard.

Weeds: Weeds of the fields, their harmful and beneficial effects and control measures.

Horticultural Propagation- details about cutting, layering, budding, thinning, pruning, grafting, and their merits and demerits; use of root inducing substances in stem cutting propagation.

Preparation of seed bed: Sowing and seedling growth composition, doses, application time and procedures.

Irrigation: Sources of irrigation water, classification of irrigation system, methods of irrigation, quality of irrigation water and water requirements of crop plants.

Branches of horticulture: Classification of horticultural plants with examples.

Horticultural aspects and cultivation of following:

(i) Vegetables: Potato, Brinjal, Tomato, Lady’s finger, and cabbage;

(ii) Fruits: Mango, Jackfruit, Papya, Guava,and Lemon

(iii) Flowers: Rose, Chrysanthemum and Orchid.

12. Pre- and Post care seedling, transplantation of seedlings, pruning and training- objectives, method, merits and demerits.

13. Problems of cultivation of hortucultural plants in plain land and hilly regions of Bangladesh

14. Concept and components of social forestry and agroforestry.

15. Aforestation: Selection of plants for homestead and forestry; role of social aforestation programme .

Books Recommended

1. C.C.Webster. 1980. Agriculture in the tropics. Longman Groups, Ltd. London.

2. A.Alim. 1974. An Introduction to Bangladesh Agriculture.

3. Adams, C.R., K.M. Bamford and M.P. Early. 1984 : Principles of Horticulture (2nd. Ed.). Butteruorth Heinmour. CBS Publisher & Distributions.

4. Sadhu, M.K. 1989 : Plant Propagation. New Age Int. Pub. Ltd.

5. Fordham, R. and A.G. Biggs. 1985 : Principles of Vegetable Crop Production. Collis Professional & Technical books, 8 Grafton street, London, WIX 3LA.

6. Adriance and F.R. Brison. 1955: Propagation of Horticultural Plants (2nd. Ed.). McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc.,

  1. Rao,M.S. 1987: Introduction to Social Forestry.
  2. gÛj, Gg. †di‡`Šm. 1990 : d‡ji evMvb, K¬ve wewìs (1g †d¬vi), K…wl wek¦we`¨vjq K¨v¤úvm, gqgbwmsn|
  3. ikx`, Gg. gvgybyi. 1976 : evsjv‡`‡ki mewR| evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv|

 


Course Code

3079

Marks: 75

Credits: 3

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

Practical - I

 

Plant Pathology : 10 Marks

1. Preparation and staining of plant pathogenic specimens.

2. Study of symptoms and causal organisms of common plant pathogenic fungi covered in theory.

3. Preparation of Bordeaux mixture

4. Preparation and sterilization of culture media for fungal growth.

5. Collection, identification and preservation of viral, bacterial and fungal specimens for phytopathological herbarium.

Taxonomy of Angiosperms : 25 Marks

1 Study of morphological features and use of taxonomic terms of plant parts, inflorescence and flowers.

2 Study and identification of angiosperm plants up to families with the help of a suitable key of the locally available specimens included in the syllabus.

3 Collection and preparation of herbarium specimens of at least 50 species from different areas of Bangladesh and arrange , and submit those after following a classification.

4 Preparation of field note book and excursion report, to be submitted during examination.

Economic Botany practical: 10

Economic Botany: 15 Marks

1 Study and identification of economically important plants, plant parts and finished products of Bangladesh included in the syllabus.

  1. Collection identification of and uses of ethnobotanical samples.

Ethnobotany practial: 10 Marks

1. Identification, naming and uses of some of common local plant material culture.

2. Plant part used and process of preparation of the identified etnobotanical material.

Practical of Pharmacognosy: 15 Marks

Preparation of herbarium at least 40 important medicinal plants of Bangladesh.

Methods of preparation of different reagents for qualitative test of (i) alkaloids, (ii) terpenoids, (iii) flavinoids.

Qualitative test for alkaloids – spot test by Mayers, Dragendorff, Wagner, Hagers and tannic acid.

Production procedures (methods of production) of marketable items (powder, tablet paste, solution/liquid etc.).

Databases – types.

 


Course Code

3080

Marks: 75

Credits: 3

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

Practical - II

 

Embryology Practical: 8 Marks

Study of ovule and anther (morphology and anatomy).

Germination of pollen grain and development of pollen tube.

Study of embryo-sac through permanent slides.

Practical of Palynology: 8 Marks

1. Techniques of Pollen collection, preparation and study of permanent pollen slide preparation.

2. Morphology and identification of taxa of common plants by using pollen morphology.

3. Pollen trapping from atmosphere and their study.

4. Pollen study in honey samples.

Plant Anatomy Practical: 14 Marks

1. Preparation of stains: Safranin and fast green, dehydrating agents- alcohol, clearing agents- xylol and clove oil.

2. Study of different of type cells and their wall sculptures in macerated tissues.

3. Transverse and longitudinal sections of Helianthus, Cucurbita and Canna stem.

4. Study of primary and secondary structure of stem, root and leaf.

5. Study of wood of common timber plants.

6. Preparation of permanent slides (double staining) with free hand sections.

Cytology practical: 10 Marks

Preparation of fixative: Conroy’s fluid.

Preparation of stain: Acetocarmine.

Study of mitosis in onion root tip cells by acetocarmine squash method.

Study of meiosis in onion/ rhoeo discolor/Setcrassea.

Cytogentics practical: 10 Marks

1. Studies of interchange complex in Rheo discolour.

Determination of centromeric type, centromeric index, relative length and chromosome formula from the supplied data.

Genetics practical: 10 Marks

1. Verification of monohybrid and dihybrid F2 ratios by chi-square test.

2. Studies of interaction of genes with the use of maize cob showing segregation of grain color/supplied data.

Agronomy and Horticulture and Aforestry practical: 15 Marks

Identification of different types of fertilizer and seeds of important crops

Seed bed preparation in field and pot preparation for using seedlings.

Transplantation of seedlings, pre- and post- transplanting care.

Viability test of seeds; seed germination and calculation of percentage of germination.

Techniques of vegetative propagation: Cutting, budding, grafting and layering.

 

Botany Syllabus Hons 3rd year-2013-14

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

Third Year Syllabus
Department of Botany

Four Year B.Sc. Honours Course
Effective from the Session: 2013–2014


National University

Subject: Botany
Syllabus for Four Year B.Sc. Honours Course
Effective from the Session: 2013-2014

Year wise Papers and marks distribution

THIRD YEAR

 

Paper Code

Paper Title

Marks

Credits

233001

Gymnosperm, Paleobotany and Palynology

100

4

233003

Plant Physiology and Plant Nutrition

100

4

233005

Plant Biochemistry

100

4

233007

Ecology and Environmental Science

100

4

233009

Plant Pathology

100

4

233011

Cytology and Cytogenetics

100

4

233013

Genetics

100

4

233014

Practical - III

100

4

Total =

800

32

 

Detailed Syllabus

 


Paper Code

233001

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Paper Title:

Gymnosperm, Palaeobotany and Palynology

 

A. Gymnosperm and Palaeobotany (Marks 50)

Gymnosperm

  1. Introduction: Habit, habitat, characteristic features, origin, evolution and importance of Gymnosperms.

2. Classification of Gymnosperms.

3. Comparative account of Gymnosperms with Pteridophytes and Angiosperms.

4. Distribution of Gymnosperms with reference to Bangladesh and their economic importance.

5. Life history and comparative account of Cycas, Pinus and Gnetum.

Palaeobotany

1. Introduction: Definition and scope of Palaeobotany

2. Types of fossils and fossilization process.

3. Geological time scale of the earth.

4. Appearance and extinction of life forms in different geological periods.

5. Fossil Pteridophytes: Lepidodendron and Calamites.

6. Fossil Gymnosperms: Cycadophilicales- Lygenopteris, Oldhamia; Bennettitales- Cycadeoidea.

Books Recommended

  1. Arnold, C. R. 1977: An Introduction to Palaeobotany. Tata McGraw Hill Pub. House Co., New Delhi.
  2. Biswas, C. and B.M. Johri. 1997: The Gymnosperms. Norasa Pub. House, New Delhi.
  3. Caulter, J. M. and C. J. Chamberlain, 1917 (1964): Morphology of Gymnosperms. Central Book Depot, Allahabad, India.
  4. Mukherji, H. 1997: Plant Groups. New Central Book Agency, Ltd. Calcutta.
  5. Parihar, N.S. 1955: An Introduction to Embryophyta Vol. I & II. Central Book Depot, Allahabad.
  6. Sharma, O. P. 1980: Gymnosperms – A treatise, Progati Prakashan, Meerut, India.
  7. Smith, G.M. 1955: Cryptogamic Botany. Vol. II, Bryophyta & Pteriodphyta. McGraw Hill Co. London.
  8. Vashishta, P.C. 1994: Botany for Degree Students. Vol. V. Gymnosperms. S. Chand and Co. Ltd. Ramnagar, New Delhi.
  9. k¨vgj Kzgvi ivq, wbkx_ Kzgvi cvj Ges †gv¯—dv Kvgvj cvkv 1995 : Acy®úK Dw¢` weÁvb, 2-LÛ, evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv|

B. Palynology (Marks 50)

1. Introduction: Historical review, fundamentals, branches, scope and application.

2. Palynomorphology: Pollen grain-wall, development, character, morphology (primary, secondary and tertiary characters); sporoderm stratification, NPC-system, evolutionary aspect of pollen and spores, palynotaxonomical aspects, pollen flora.

3. Melissopalynology: Bee and bee foraging, pollen load, pollen in honey, identification of bee flora and preparation of bee flora calendar, marker pollen, bee flora- importance and management.

4. Aeropalynology: Principles, pollen productivity, buoyancy, frequency, dissemination, distribution and dispersion principles, pollen as pollutants, scope and importance.

5. Paleopalynology: Principles, microfossils, reconstruction of vegetation; relation with archaeology and palaeobotany, tracing of pollen in geological era, scope and importance.

6. Pharmacopalynology: Pollen in nutrition and health, allergy in forensic medicine, scope and importance.

7. Biogenic palynology: Pollen as biological material, relation to agriculture, horticulture and plant improvement.

Books recommended:

1. K. Faegri and J. Iversen. 1990: A Text Book of Modern Pollen Analysis. Copenhagen.

2. P.K.K. Nair, 1985: Essentials of Palynology. Asia Publishing House. New Delhi.

3. G. Erdman, 1952: Pollen Morphology & Plant Taxonomy, Waltham Mass, USA.

4. G. Erdtman 1954: An Introduction to Pollen Analysis. Waltham Mass, USA.

5. M.R. Saxena, 1993: Palynology – A treatise, Oxford & IBH Pub., New Delhi.

6. A.K. Shukla, M.R.Vijoyraghvan and B. Choudhury. 1998. Biology of Pollen. A.P.H. Pub. Corp. New Delhi.

7. K.R. Shivanna 2005. Pollen Biology and Biotechnology. Oxford & IBH Pub. Comp. New Delhi.

8. K. Bhattacharya, M.R. Majumder & S.G. Bhattacharya. 2008. An introduction to Palynology, New Central Book Agency. New Delhi.

9. R.B. Knox.1979. Pollen and Allergy. Edward Arnold. London.

10. cvkv, Gg. †K. 2008: civM‡iYy weÁvb, evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv|

 


Paper Code

233003

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Paper Title:

Plant Physiology and Plant Nutrition

 

 

A. Plant Physiology (Marks: 80)

1. Life and life related physico-chemical phenomena: Physiology of life, colloids, diffusion, osmosis, plasmolysis, imbibition, osmotic pressure and root pressure.

2. Absorption of water: Mechanism of absorption, active and passive absorption, external factors affecting absorption of water; translocation of water, path of translocation of water, mechanism of translocation, different theories on transpiration pull and adhesion-cohesion theory.

3. Transpiration: Overview of transpiration, types of transpiration, mechanism of transpiration, mechanism of opening and closing of stomata, significance of transpiration.

4. Photosynthesis: Overview of photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, light dependent reaction: action of light, photophosphorylation, light independent reaction: assimilation of CO2, Calvin cycle, Hatch & Slack cycle, Crassulacean acid metabolism, comparison of C3, C4 and CAM pathways, factors affecting photosynthesis.

5. Respiration and fermentation: Definition and types of respiration, glycolysis, pyruvate to acetyl CoA formation, TCA cycle, electron transport system, respiratory quotient, anaerobic respiration; definition of fermentation, alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation, comparison of respiration and fermentation.

6. Plant Growth Regulators: Discovery, classification, distribution, chemical nature of plant growth regulators; physiological effects of auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene and abscisic acid.

7. Photoperiodism: An overview, photoperiodic induction, importance of dark period, critical photoperiod, perception of photoperiodic stimulus, discovery and distribution of phytochrome, physical and chemical properties of phytochrome, physiological effects of phytochrome.

8. Vernalization: Brief history, vernalization and flowering, site of perception of vernalization, mechanism of vernalization, devernalization, factors affecting vernalization.

9. Physiology of seed: Seed structure and development, viability of seeds, germination process and types of germination, conditions necessary for germination; physiological, biochemical and other changes accompanying seed germination; overview of seed dormancy, causes of seed dormancy, methods of breaking dormancy, advantages of dormancy of seed.

10. Plant growth: Plant growth curve, phases of growth; factors affecting plant growth, types and causes of senescence.

 

Books Recommended

  1. Devlin, M.R. and H.F. Witham. 1986: Plant Physiology (4th. Ed.). CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.

2. Jain JL 1983. Fundamentals of Biochemistry, S. Chand and Company Ltd., New Delhi.

3. Hess, D. 1975: Plant Physiology. Springer International Student Edition, New Delhi.

4. Pandey, S.N. and B.K. Sinha. 1990: Plant Physiology (2nd. Ed.). Vikash Pub. House Pvt. Ltd.

5 Salisbury, F.B. and C. Ross. 1969 : Plant Physiology. Wardsworth Pub. Co. Inc., Belmont, California.

6. Srivastava HS 1991. Elements of Biochemistry, Rastogi Publications, Shiraji Road, Meerut, India.

7 Kg©Kvi, h`yjvj. 2000 : Dw™¢` kixi weÁvb, nvmvb eyK nvDR, XvKv|

B. Plant Nutrition (Marks: 20)

1. Plant Nutrition: Introduction to plant nutrition, essential elements; criteria of essential elements; micronutrients and macronutrients, role and deficiency symptoms of essential elements.

2. Ion absorption of plants: Factor affecting ion absorption, barrier of ion absorption, structure of plasma membrane, mechanism and types of ion absorption, passive absorption (Donnan equilibrium and cation exchange theory), active absorption (evidence of active absorption; carrier concept; and anion respiration or Lundegardth theory).

3. Pathways of translocation of ions: Apoplastic and symplastic pathway, upward movement of ions.

4. Water and sand culture: Introduction to water and sand culture, techniques of water culture, advantages and disadvantages of water culture.

Books Recommended

1. Epstein, E. 1972. Mineral Nutrition of plants: Principles and Perspectives. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

2. Gauch, H.G. 1982. Inorganic Plant Nutrition. Dowdess, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc.

3. Marschner, H. 1992. Inorganic Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press, New York.

4. Sutchiffe. J.F. and F.S. Baker. 1984. Plants and Mineral Salts. Edward Arnold, London.

5. Hewitt, E.J. and T.A. Smith. 1974. Plant Mineral Nutrition. The English University Press, London.

 


Paper Code

233005

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Paper Title:

Plant Biochemistry

 

 

1. Introduction: Name and distribution of biochemical substances in plants.

2. Carbohydrates: Introduction to carbohydrates, types of carbohydrates, chemistry and distributions of monosaccharides, oligosaccharides (sucrose, maltose, lactose and cellobiose,) and polysaccharides (starch, cellulose and glycogen).

3. Amino acids: General structure, classification of amino acids, essential and non essential amino acids, protein and non-protein amino acids, industrial importance of amino acids.

4. Proteins: Biochemistry, structure, classification, functions of proteins.

5. Lipids: Overview of lipids, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, structure and functions of triglycerides, phospholipids, glycolipids, oxidation of fatty acid.

6. Membrane Chemistry: Chemical nature of plasma membrane, structure and functions.

7. Enzymes: Overview of enzymes, classification, kinetics of enzymes, holoenzyme and apoenzyme, coenzyme and cofactors; structure and mechanisms, specificity (lock and key model, induced fit model), enzyme inhibitors.

8. Terpenoids: Main classes of plant terpenoids, path of terpenoid biosynthesis in plants; essential oils; di-terpenoids and gibberellins; triterpenoids and steroids; tetraterpenoids - carotenoids.

9. Alkaloids: History, chemistry, distributions, classification, major alkaloids and their plant families, importance of alkaloids.

10. Phenolic compounds: Introduction to phenolic compounds, shikimic acid pathway, flavonoid: chemistry and distributions, properties of different flavonoid classes, anthocyanins, importance of phenolic compounds.

11. Vitamins: Introduction to vitamin, source and types of vitamins, importance.

12. Principles of some biochemical methodologies: Spectrophotometry, centrifugation, chromatography.

 

 

Books Recommended:

1 Conn EE and PK Stumpf 1972. Outlines of Biochemistry (3rd edn.), John Wiley & Sons. Inc.

2 Goodwin, T.W. and E.I. Mereer. 1983: Introduction to Plant Biochemistry (2nd. Ed.). Pergamon Press.

3 Harborne JB 1973. Phytochemical methods. Chapman and Hill, London.

4 Jain, J. L. 1983: Fundamental of Biochemistry (2nd. Ed.). S. Chand and Co. Ltd. New Delhi.

5 Lehninger AL 2005. Principles of Biochemistry (4th edn.), Freeman and Company, New York

6 Mahler HR and EH cordes 1971. Biological Chemistry, 2nd edn., Harper and Row.

7 Sivastava, H.S. 1990: Elements of Biochemistry. Rastogi Publication, Meerut.

8 Varner, J.E. and J. Bonner. 1965: Plant Biochemistry. Acad. Press, New York, London.

 


Paper Code

233007

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Paper Title:

Ecology and Environmental Science

 

 

A. Ecology (Marks 50)

1. Introduction: Definition, history and scope of Ecology.

2. Plant Succession: Types and causes of succession, hydrosere and xerosere, models of succession.

3. Ecosystem: Definition, structure, components, functions and types of ecosystem; habitat and ecological niche; trophic level and trophic structure; energy flow in ecosystem; food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids, dynamics of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

4. Plant adaptations: Morphological, anatomical and physiological adaptive features of hydrophytes, xerophytes, mesophytes.

5. Forest ecology: Introduction to forest, types of forests, dominant plants of deciduous, semi-evergreen and tidal forests of Bangladesh and their edaphic features.

6. Phytogeographical region of the world: Brief account of phytogeographical regions of the world and Indian sub-continent, interactions among floristic plant geography.

7. Methods of studying vegetation: Quantitative and qualitative analysis, measurements of vegetation by quadrate, transect and point methods, study of communities, community dynamics, classification of community.

8. The role of green plants in nature with reference to: (i) The sun-a thermonuclear energy source; (ii) radiant energy; (iii) human population and food supply.

9. Bio-geochemical cycles: Introduction to bio-geochemical cycles, types, carbon and nitrogen cycle.

 

Books Recommended

  1. Bannister, P. 1976: Introduction of Physiological Plant Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  2. Doubenmire, R. F. 1974: Plants and Environment. (3rd. Ed.). Wiley International .
  3. Daubenmire, R. F. 1974: Plant Communities – A Text Book of Synecology. Harper and Row Publ. London.
  4. Etherington, J. R. 1971: Environmental and Plant Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
  5. Kershaw, K. A. 1973: Quantitative and Dynamic Plant Ecology, Edward Arnold Ltd.
  6. Krebs, C. J. 1978: Ecology: The Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance, Harper International.
  7. Kumar, H. D. 1995: Modern Concepts of Ecology, Vikash Pub. House, India.
  8. Muller Dombois, D. and H. Ellenberg. 1974: Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology, John Wiley & Sons. Inc., New York.
  9. Odum, E. P. 1971: Fundamentals of Ecology. Toppan Co. Ltd. Japan.
  10. Poole, R. W. 1974: An Introduction of Quantitative Ecology. McGraw-Hill Book Co., NY.
  11. Sharma, P. D. 1995: Ecology and Environment. Rastogi Pub., New Delhi.
  12. Shukla and P. S. Chandel. 1991: Plant Ecology and Soil Science, S. Chand & Co., India.
  13. Waisel, J. 1972: Biology of Halophytes. Academic Press, London.

 

 

B. Environmental science (Marks 50)

1. Introduction: Definition, aims and objectives, plant-environmental relationship.

2. Environmental components: Biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and their importance.

3. Natural resources: Concepts and types, water, land, biological, mineral, energy, ocean, wildlife and human resources and their impact on environment.

4. Global environmental issues: Population explosion, effects of population explosion on the environment.

5. Drought and desertification: Drought and aridity index, drought and desertification caused by human activity, prevention and reversal of desertification.

6. Pollution: Definition, types of pollutants and pollution, causes and effects of pollution; nature, sources and causes of water and air pollution, control of water and air pollution.

7. Greenhouse effects: Introduction to greenhouse effects, sources and effects of greenhouse gases, ozone layer depletion, greenhouse gases and world climate, control of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and the world climate.

 


Books Recommended

1. Asthana, D. K. and M. Asthana. 1985: Environment : Problems and Solutions, S. Chand & Co.

2. Baldwin, J. H. 1988: Environmental Planning and Management. Int. Book. Dist.

3. Bhatia, H.S. 1998: A Text Book on Environmental Pollution and Control. Galgotia Pub.

4. Chiras, D.D. 1984: Environmental Science. The Benjamin Pub. Co. Inc.

5. Gain, P.S. Moral and P. Raj. 1998: Bangladesh-Environment: Pacing the 21st century. SHED, 44/D, West Panthapath, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.

6. Jeffries, M.J. 1997: Biodiversity and Conservation. Routledge, London and New York.

7. Kemp, D.D. 1990 : Global Environmental Issues. Routledge.

8. Pandey, G.N. 1999 : Environmental Management. Vikas Pub. House.

9. Santra, S.C. 2001 : Environmental Science. New Central Book Agency, Calcutta.

10. Shukla, R.S. and P. S. Chandel. 1991: Plant Ecology and Soil Science. S. Chand & Co., India.

11. Srivastava, N.Y. 1997 : Environmental Pollution. Ashish Pub. House.

12. Trivedi, R.N. 1997: A Text Book of Environmental Science. Anmol Pub.

13. Watt, K. F. 1973: Principles of Environmental Science. McGraw Hill Book Co. New York.

 


Paper Code

233009

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Paper Title:

Plant Pathology

 

1. Introduction: History of Plant Pathology, concept of disease in plants, causes, diagnosis, classification and importance of plant diseases.

2. Koch’s postulates and methods of studying plant diseases.

3. Parasitism and disease development: Parasitism and pathogenesis; development of plant disease- inoculation, penetration, infection, growth and reproduction, dissemination, over wintering and over summering of the pathogen.

4. Symptomatology: Viral, bacterial and fungal disease symptoms.

5. Toxins in relation to plant disease:

a) Types of toxins- pathotoxins, vivotoxins and phytotoxins; b) Host specific and non-specific toxins; c) Effect of toxins on plant disease.

6. Host defense against pathogens: Structural and biochemical defense.

7. Principles of plant disease management: Disease forecasting; regulatory, physical, cultural, chemical and biological methods of disease management.

8. Chemical control of plant diseases: Nature of chemical compounds - copper, mercury and sulphur compounds; methods of application- spraying, dusting, seed treatment and soil treatment.

9. Selected fungal diseases of crop plants: Causal organisms, symptoms, disease cycle and control measures of the following: i) tikka disease of ground nut; ii) stem rot, anthracnose and black band of jute; iii) late blight and early blight of potato; iv) rust and leaf spot of bean; v) brown spot, stem rot and blast of rice, vi) red rot of sugarcane; vii) stem rust and loose smut of wheat.

10. Selected bacterial diseases of crop plants: Characteristics and classification of plant pathogenic bacteria, mode of action of bacteria on host tissues; causal organisms, symptoms and etiology and control measures of the following diseases: i) angular leaf spot of cotton; ii) bacterial blight of rice; iii) citrus canker; iv) wilt of tomato; v) soft rot of potato.

11. Viral diseases of plants: Symptoms, causal organisms, vectors and control measures of the following diseases: i) tungro of rice, ii) bunchy top of banana; iii) vein clearing of lady’s finger, iv) leaf curl of tomato, v) mosaic of bean.

12. Seed pathology: Scope and importance of seed borne diseases; major seed diseases: seed abortion, discoloration, necrosis, rot; seed health testing; control of seed borne diseases.

Books Recommended

  1. Agrios, G.N. 1997: Plant Pathology (4th Ed.). Academic Press, London.
  2. Fahy, P.C. and G.J. Persley. 1993: Plant Bacterial Disease. A Diagnostic Guide. Acad. Press, London.
  3. Mehrotra, R.S. 1980: Plant Pathology. Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Com., Ltd. New Delhi.
  4. Rangaswami, G. 1972: Diseases of Crop Plants in India. Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
  5. Singh, R.S. 1978 : Plant Diseases. Oxford & IBH Pub. Co., New Delhi.
  6. Lvb, G.G. 2000 : c­v›U c¨v‡_vjwR, †`vjb Puvcv, KvRx cÖKvkbx, XvKv|

 


Paper Code

233011

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Paper Title:

Cytology and Cytogenetics

 

A. Cytology (Marks 50)

1. Introduction: Definition, cell theory and cell concept, historical background of cytology.

2. Concept of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and their differences.

3. Ultra-structure of eukaryotic cell: Detailed structure and functions of cell wall, cell membrane, chloroplast, mitochondria, ribosome, lysosome, endoplasmic reticulum, golgibody, nucleus, and nucleolus.

4. Chromosome: Physical and chemical structure; classification; secondary constriction.

5. Chromatin: Eu-chromatin and heterochromatin; nucleosome- shape and organization; histone and non-histone proteins.

6. Special type of chromosome: Introduction, major special type of chromosomes viz. i) salivary gland chromosome; ii) lamp-brush chromosome, iii) B-chromosome and synaptenemal complex.

7. Cell division: Cell cycle, amitosis, mitosis, meiosis and their biological significance.

Books Recommended

1. Akhtaruzzaman, M. 1997: Koshbidhya (3rd. Ed.), Hassan Book House, Dhaka.

  1. Dupraw, E. J. 1970: DNA and Chromosomes, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.
  2. Gupta, M. L. and M. L. Jangir. 1998: Cell Biology: Fundamentals and Applications, Agro Botanika, New Delhi.
  3. Sharma, A. 1976: The Chromosomes. Oxford & IBH Pub. Co., New Delhi.
  4. Wilson, G. B. and J. H. Morrison. 1966: Cytology. Litton Educational Pub. Inc., New York.
  5. Rvgvb, Gg. G. 1975 : †Kvlwe`¨v, evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv|
  6. mywnZ ¸n. 1978 : mvB‡UvjwR. cwðg e½ ivR¨ cy¯—K cl©`|

B. Cytogenetics (Marks 50)

1. Introduction: Definition, scope and brief history of Cytogenetics.

2. Chromosomal aberration: A general account and classification.

3. Deletion: Definition, types, genetic detection, phenotypic and genotypic effects, breakage–fusion bridge cycle (meiotic behaviour).

4. Duplication: Definition, kinds, genetic detection, position effect, breakage–fusion bridge cycle (meiotic behaviour).

5. Inversion: Definition, types, synapsis in inversion heterozygote, consequences of 2-strands, 3-strands and 4-strands double cross over (one extra and another intra loop) of a paracentric inversion heterozygote.

6. Translocation: Definition, types, different kinds of orientation and configurations of reciprocal translocation, heterozygote at MI, formation of different gametes from those configuration, identification of chromosomes involved in translocation and breeding behaviour.

7. Numerical aberrations: Introduction, classification, a brief account on origin, meiotic behavior and genetic ratio of monosomic, trisomic, nullisomic.

8. Polyploidy: Definition, classification, polyploidy in plants (natural and artificial), artificial induction of polyploidy and its significance in crop improvement, origin of new species by allopolyploidy (wheat).

9. Human Cytogenetics: Introduction, Down’s syndrome, Kleinfelter’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome.

Books Recommended

1. Akhtaruzzaman, M. 1997: Koshbidhya (3rd. Ed.), Hassan Book House, Dhaka.

2. Akhtaruzzaman, M. 1997: Kosh-Bangshagatibidhya, Bangla Academy, Dhaka.

3. Garber, E.D. 1992: Cytogenetics, McGraw Hill Inc., New York.

4. Moore, D.M. 1976: Plant Cytogenetics. Chapman and Hall Ltd., England.

5. Schulz-Schaeffer, J. 1980: Cytogenetics. Springer-Verlag, New York.

6. Sinha, U. and S. Sinha. 1997: Cytogenetics, Plant Breeding and Evolution. Vikas Pub. House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

7. Swaminathan, M.S., P.K. Gupta and U. Sinha. 1983: Cytogenetics of Crop plants. MacMillan Ltd., New Delhi.

8. Swanson, C.P., T. Merz and W.J. Young. 1982: Cytogenetics: The Chromosomes in Division, Inheritance and Evolution. (3rd. Ed.). Reprint. Prentice Hall of India. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

9. Avn‡g`, mvgmywÏb, 2000 : mvB‡Uv‡R‡bwUKm&| evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv|

 


Paper Code

233013

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Paper Title:

Genetics

 

1. Historical background of Genetics.

2. Mendelian principles: Mendel’s law of inheritance; exceptions of Mendel’s laws.

3. Physical and chemical basis of heredity.

4. Interaction of genes: Complementary, duplication, epistatic and additive gene interaction, complete and incomplete dominance.

5. Linkage and crossing over: Introduction; linkage and recombination; gene mapping; interference and coincidence.

6. Sex determination: Chromosomal and genetic basis of sex determination; sex linked, sex limited and sex influenced characters.

7. Allelism and pleiotropism: Introduction; multiple alleles (ABO blood type) and pseudoalleles, pleiotropism.

8. Quantitave inheritance: Qualitative versus quantitative traits; multiple factors hypothesis- kernel colour in wheat and skin colour in human; polygenic inheritance and continuous variation.

9. Fine structure of gene: Chemical concept of gene, development of the concept of cistron, recon, muton and complon.

10. Biochemical genetics: Gene-protein relationship, one gene-one enzyme hypothesis, isolation of biochemical mutation.

11. Mutation: Discovery, causes, classification, mutagens, detection of mutation in Drosophila by CIB, detection of autosomal mutation, biochemical mutants- prototroph and auxotroph selection.

12. Cytoplasmic inheritance: Inheritance of variegated leaves in higher plants, inheritance of extranuclear genes, maternal inheritance, general idea of plasmid and episome.

13. Population genetics: Hardy-Weinberg law and its conditions; gene frequencies; equilibrium of gene sequences; forces of evolution.

14. Genetic recombination in bacteria: Introduction, transformation, conjugation, transduction.

Books Recommended

1. Benjamin Lewin. 2000: Gene 2000. Oxford University Press, NY.

2. Gordner, E.J. 1960: Principles of Genetics. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, London.

3. Singleton, W.R. 1967: Elementary Genetics. D. Von Nostrand Co., Inc., Canada.

4. Sinnot, E.W., L.C. Dunn and Th. Dobzhansky. 1985: Principles of Genetics. (5th ed.). McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., New York, London.

5. Snustad, D.P., et al.: Principles of Genetics, John Willey & Sons, Inc.

6. Strickberger, M.W. 1996: Genetics. MacMillan Pub. Co. Inc., New York, London.

7. Whitehouse, H.L.K. 1973: Towards and Understanding of the Mechanism of Heredity, Edward Arnold. England.

8. Bmjvg, G. Gm. 1984 : eskMwZ we`¨vi g~j K_v, evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv|

9. AvLZvi“¾vgvb, g. : eskMwZ we`¨v, nvmvb eyK nvDR, XvKv|

 


Paper Code

233014

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Paper Title:

Practical - III (Gymnosperm, Palaeobotany and Palynology, Plant Physiology and Plant Nutrition, Plant Biochemistry, Ecology and Environmental Science, Plant Pathology, Cytology and Cytogenetics, Genetics)

 

N.B. Practical examination will be carried out in two days with 6 hours duration each under the same Paper code.

Part A (Marks 50, Credit 2)

(Gymnosperms, Palaeobotany & Palynology; Plant Physiology & Plant Nutrition; Plant Biochemistry, Ecology

Gymnosperms and Palaeobotany: 9 Marks

  1. Study of museum specimens.
  2. Detailed study including dissection, mountings, description, drawing and identification of Cycas and Pinus sp.
  3. Study of fossil plants.

Palynology: 4 Marks

1. Techniques of pollen collection, preparation and study of permanent pollen slide preparation.

2. Morphology and identification of common plants by using pollen morphology.

3. Pollen trapping from atmosphere and their study.

4. Pollen study in honey samples.

Plant Physiology: 8 Marks

1. Chlorophyll is essential for photosynthesis.

2. Evolution of oxygen during photosynthesis at different light intensities.

3. Demonstration of stomatal transpiration by four leaves method.

4. Heat evolution during respiration.

5. Pigment separation by paper chromatography technique.

6. Demonstration of plasmolysis by Rhoeo discolor leaf peal.

Plant Nutrition: 4 Marks

  1. Preparation of various plant nutrient solutions such as knop’s solution, Hoagland solution.
  2. Study of mineral deficiency symptoms.

Plant Biochemistry: 8 Marks

1. Tests for reducing and non-reducing sugars.

2. Quantitative test for starch, lipid and protein.

3. Observation of starch grains under compound microscope.

Ecology: 10 Marks

1. Morphological and anatomical studies of hydrophytes and xerophytes.

2. Common hydrophytes and xerophytes of Bangladesh.

3. Determination of frequency, density and abundance of different species by quadrate method.

4. Study of different stomatal types of sun and shade habitats.

5. Halophytic adaptations such as pneumatophore, viviparous germination etc.

Collections: 2 Marks

Practical Note Book: 5 Marks

Part B (Marks 50, Credit 2)

(Environmental Science, Plant Pathology, Cytology & Cytogenetics, Genetics)

Environmental Science: 6 Marks

1. Determination of BOD/COD of polluted water of pond, lake, river etc.

2. Identification of environmentally threatened categories of plants of an area.

Plant Pathology: 12.0 Marks

1. Preparation and staining of plant pathogenic specimens.

2. Study of symptoms and causal organisms of common plant diseases.

3. Preparation of Bordeaux mixture

4. Preparation and sterilization of Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) for fungal growth.

5. Collection, identification and preservation of viral, bacterial and fungal specimens.

Cytology and Cytogentics: 14 Marks

1. Preparation of fixative: Conroy’s fluid.

2. Preparation of cytological stain: Acetocarmine, aceto-orcein.

3. Study of mitosis in onion root tip cells by acetocarmine squash method.

4. Study of meiosis in Rhoeo discolor/Setcreasea purpurea.

5. Studies of interchange complex in Rhoeo discolor.

6. Determination of centromeric type, centromeric index, relative length and chromosome formula from the supplied data.

Genetics: 8 Marks

1. Verification of monohybrid and dihybrid F2 ratios by chi-square test.

2. Studies of interaction of genes with the use of maize cob showing segregation of grain color/supplied data.

Collections (Plant Pathology) and permanent slides (Cytology): 5.0 Marks

Practical Note Book: 5.0 Marks

 

 

Instruction to the Examiners

Part –A (Gymnosperms, Palaeobotany & Palynology, Plant Physiology and Plant Nutrition, Plant Biochemistry and Ecology)

Time: 6 hours Marks: 50

1. Specimen A will be from Gymnosperms.

Distribution of marks

 

Distribution

Marks

I) Preparation of slide

2.0

II) Labelled diagrams

2.0

III) Identifying characters

1.5

IV) Identification

0.5

Total

6.0

 

2. Specimen B will be pollen from fresh flowers/honey samples.

Distribution of marks

 

Distribution

Marks

I) Preparation of slide

1.5

II) Labelled diagrams

1.5

III) Comment

1.0

Total

4.0

 

3. C will be an experiment on Plant Physiology. At least two experiments will have to be given alternately.

Distribution of marks

 

Distribution

Marks

I) Theory

1.0

II) Requirements

1.0

III) Performance

3.0

IV) Results

2.0

V) Precautions

1.0

Total

8.0

 

4. Preparation of Knop’s solution/Hoagland’s solution.

Distribution of marks

 

Distribution

Marks

I) Requirements

1.0

II) Performance

1.0

IV) Procedure

2.0

Total

4.0

 

5. `D’ will be an experiment to determine the presence or absence of reducing and non- reducing sugars in the supplied solutions.

Water, Sugar solution and Glucose solution may be supplied. Examinees will have to identify the type of sugar and will have to show the result to the examiners and will have to write results giving reasons.

Distribution of marks

 

Distribution

Marks

I) Performance

3.0

II) Principle

1.0

III) Results with reason

4.0

Total

8.0

 

6. Study of vegetation by quadrate method.

Distribution of marks

 

Distribution

Marks

I) Theory

1.0

II) Requirements

0.5

III) Procedure

1.5

IV) Result

3.0

Total

6.0

 

7. Specimens/slides/photographs will have to be given for identification:

E-Gymnosperms, F- Palaeobotany

 

Distribution

Marks

I) Identifying characters

1.0

II) Identification

0.5

Total

1.5×2= 3.0

 

G & H will be materials of ecological importance

 

Distribution

Marks

I) Identifying characters

1.0

II) Comment

1.0

Total

2.0×2= 4.0

 

8. Collection 2.0

9. Practical Note Book 5.0

Instruction to the Examiners

Part-B (Environmental Science, Plant Pathology, Cytology& Cytogenetics, Genetics)

Time: 6 hours Marks: 50

1. Sample A will be the determination of BOD/COD from supplied water from pond/lake/river.

Distribution of marks:

 

Distribution

Marks

I) Requirements

1.0

II) Performance

1.5

III) Procedure and Calculation

2.5

IV) Result with comment

1.0

Total

6.0

 

2. Specimens B & C will be from fungal diseased plant.

Distribution of marks

 

Distribution

Marks

I) Preparation of slide

1.0

II) Labelled diagram

1.5

III) Identifying characters with symptoms

1.5

IV) Identification

0.5

Total

4.5×2= 9.0

 

3. Specimen D will be root tip/flower bud for cytological studies. One stage of mitotic/meiotic cell division has to be shown to the examiners except early prophase.

Distribution of marks:

 

Distribution

Marks

I) Preparation of slide

4.0

II) Labelled diagrams

2.0

III) Identifying characters

1.0

IV) Identification

1.0

Total

8.0

 

4. Specimens E, F, G, H, I & J should be from herbarium sheet/plant/permanent slide/photomicrograph etc.

E and F-Diseased plant/plant part

G and H- Cytological specimens

I and J – Cytogenetical specimens

 

Distribution

Marks

I) Identification

0.5

II) Reasons

1.0

Total

1.5×6= 9.0

 

5. Specimens K and L will be maize cob with different coloured seeds/any other segregating material to tests Mendel’s ratios by chi-square test.

 

Distribution

Marks

I) Character identification

1.0

II) Hypothesis formulation

1.0

III) Chi-square test

5.0

IV) Comment

1.0

Total

8.0

 

6. Collection and Permanent slides 5.0

7. Practical Note Book 5.0

 

Botany Syllabus Hons First year 2013-14

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

First Year Syllabus
Department of Botany

Four Year B.Sc. Honours Course
Effective from the Session: 2013–2014


National University

Subject: Botany
Syllabus for Four Year B.Sc. Honours Course
Effective from the Session: 2013-2014

Year wise Papers and marks distribution

FIRST YEAR

 

Paper Code

Paper Title

Marks

Credits

213001

Microbiology

75

3

213003

Mycology

75

3

213005

Phycology

75

3

213006

Practical-I

75

3

212807

Chemistry-I

Chemistry-I Practical

100

4

212808

50

2

213105

Zoology-I

Zoology Practical – I

100

4

213106

50

2

211501

History of the Emergence of Independent Bangladesh

100

4

Total=

700

28

 

Detailed Syllabus

 


Paper Code

213001

Marks: 75

Credits: 3

Class Hours: 45

Paper Title:

Microbiology

 

1. A brief historical background and scope of Microbiology.

2. Living organisms: Characters and possible origin, spontaneous generation, biogenesis and germ theory of infectious diseases.

3. Position of microorganisms in the Living world: Five-kingdom concept, three domain concept, prokaryotic versus eukaryotic cells.

4. Prions, Viroids, Rickettsia and Mycoplasma: Discovery, Structure, general characteristics

and importance.

5. Viruses: Discovery, nature, structure of RNA virus (TMV) and DNA virus (T2 phage); multiplication of viruses; transmission of plant viruses, importance of viruses.

6. Archaea: General characteristics and importance.

7. Bacteria: Prokaryotic nature, size, shape and arrangement of bacterial cell; chemical composition of flagella, pili, capsule, cell wall, cell membrane, nucleoid, cytoplasm, endospore; classification of bacteria on the basis of flagella, multiplication of bacteria (binary fission), importance of bacteria.

8. Actinomycetes: Discovery, structure, general characteristics and importance.

9. Growth and nutrition of microorganisms: Generation time, phases of growth curve, essential elements of microbial growth, nutritional groups of microorganisms (autotrophs and heterotrophs).

10. Microbial association: Introduction, positive and negative interaction, commensalism, synargism, antagonism and symbiosis.

11. Bacterial and viral diseases: Major human bacterial and viral diseases e.g. cholera, typhoid, dysenteries, tetanus, tuberculosis, pneumonia, AIDS and polio.

Books Recommended

1. Frobisher, M., R.D. Hinsdill, K.T. Grabtree and C.R. Gooddheart. 1974: Fundamentals of Microbiology (9th ed.). W.B. Saunders Co. London.

2. Dubey, R.C. and D.K. Maheshwari. 1999: A Text Book of Microbiology. S. Chand and Co. Ltd.

3. Pelczer, M.J., E.C.S. Chan and N.R. Krieg. 1993: Microbiology: Concepts and Applications. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc. New York.

4. Tortora, G.J., B.R. Funke and C.L. Case. 1997: Microbiology (6th ed.) Addison Wes-ley Longman, Inc., California.

5. Bmjvg, Gg. iwdKzj, wgwni jvj mvnv Ges Gg. G. evmvi. 2011: AYyRxe weÁvb, nvmvb eyK nvDR, XvKv|

 


Paper Code

213003

Marks: 75

Credits: 3

Class Hours: 45

Paper Title:

Mycology

 

1. Introduction and scope of Mycology.

2. Myxomycetes: A brief account of the habit, habitats, structure, reproduction and importance.

3. Fungi: General characteristics, vegetative structure, chemical nature of cell wall, growth, nutrition and reproduction.

4. Classification of fungi: Classification according to G. C. Ainsworth 1966, and C. J. Alexopoulos & C. W. Mims1986.

5. General characteristics of the following fungal classes and study of the somatic and reproductive features of the genera mentioned against each class:

(i) Chytridiomycetes: Olpidium, Synchytrium;

(b) Oomycetes: Saprolegnia, Phytophthora and Albugo;

(c) Zygomycetes: Mucor, Rhizopus;

(d) Ascomycetes: Ascobolus, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Erysiphe, Claviceps, Neurospora.

(e) Basidiomycetes: Puccinia, Ustilago, Agaricus, Polyporus.

(f) Deuteromycetes: Candida, Alternaria, Cercospora, Fusarium, Macrophomina, Colletotrichum.

6. Role of fungi as: Saprophytes, plant parasites, mycorrhizae as plant symbionts, poisonous and edible mushrooms, in bread and brewer industry and producers of important metabolites.

7. Lichen: Habitats, habit, morphology, classification, anatomy, reproduction and importance.

Books Recommended

1. Ainsworth, G. C. 1996: A general purpose classification of fungi. Bibliography of systematic Mycology, pp 1-4, Commonwealth Mycological Institute, London.

2. Alexopoulos, C.J., C.W. Mims and M. Blackwell. 1996: Introductory Mycology (4th ed.), Wiley, Eastern Ltd., Calcutta, India.

3. Hawker, Lilian, E. 1967: Fungi, Hutchinson Univ. Library, Cambridge Univ. Press, London.

4. Moore-Landecker, Elizabath. 1982: Fundamentals of the Fungi. Prentice-Hall. Inc., New Jersey, USA.

5. Webster, J. 1980: Introduction to Fungi. Cambridge Univ. Press, London, UK.

 

Paper Code

Paper Title

Marks

Credits

Class Hours

213005

Phycology

75

3

45

 

1. Introduction: Definition, history and scope of Phycology.

2. Algal Habitat: Aquatic (fresh, brackish and marine water) terrestrial and sub-aerial.

3. Classification of algae: Bases of classification (pigments, reserve foods, chloroplasts and flagella) classification up to Class according to F.E. Fritsch (1946) and R.R. Lee (1989). General characteristics of the different groups of algae.

4. Pigment and Reserve Food: Pigments and reserve food materials in major divisions of Algae.

5. Plastid: Types of chloroplasts of algae and their distribution.

6. Morphology: Range of vegetative structure of algae.

7. Reproduction: Vegetative, asexual and sexual reproduction and perennation in algae.

8. General characteristics, classification up to order and reproduction of the following classes and the study of life history of the genera mentioned against each class:

i) Cyanophyceae: Oscillatoria, Nostoc, Anabaena and Gloeotrichia;

ii) Chlorophyceae: Chlamydomonas, Chlorella, Volvox , Oedogonium and Fritschiella;

iii) Charophyceae: Chara;

iv) Euglenophyceae: Euglena;

v) Bacillariophyceae: Navicula and Chaetoceros;

vi) Phaeophyceae: Ectocarpus and Sargassum;

vii) Rhodophyceae: Polysiphonia and Gelidium;

viii) Cryptophyceae: Cryptomonas;

ix) Xanthophyceae: Vaucheria.

9. Growth pattern and nutrition in algae.

10. Origin and evolutionary trends in algae.

11. Phytoplankton: Definition and general characteristics, floating mechanisms, classification, ecological and biological importance, general composition of fresh and marine water phytoplankton.

12. Importance: Economic and biological importance of freshwater and marine algae including nitrogen economy of nature.

Books Recommended

1. Bold H.C. and M.J. Wynne. 1978: Introduction to the Algae. Prentice Hall, India.

2. Chapman, V.J. and D.J. Chapman. 1973: The Algae. Macmillan, London.

3. Fritsch, F.E. 1946: The Structure and Reproduction in Algae. Vol. 1 & 2, Cambridge Univ. Press.

4. Lee, R.R. 1989: Phycology. Cambridge Univ. Press, UK.

5. Prescott, G.W. 1968: The Algae: A Review. Thomas Nelson, London.

6. Round F.E. 1973: The Biology of Algae. St. Martin’s Press, New York.

7. Round, F.E. 1981: The Ecology of Algae, Cambridge Univ. Press, UK.

8. Smith, G.W. 1950: The Fresh Water Algae of the United States. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., New York.

9. Van dam Hoek, C.D.G. Mann and H.M. Johns. 1996: Algae: An Introduction to Phycology, Cambridge Univ. Press.

10. ivq, k¨vgj Kzgvi; cvj, wbkx_ Kzgvi; cvkv, †gv¯—dv Kvgvj, 1995:Acy®úK Dw™¢`weÁvb (1g), evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv|

 



Paper Code

Paper Title

Marks

Credits

Class Hours

213006

Practical 1 (Microbiology, Mycology & Phycology)

75

3

45

 

Microbiology: 25 Marks

1. Handling and use of bright field compound microscope.

2. Microscopic observation of curd and nodule bacteria.

3. Staining and observation of bacteria by simple staining and Gram staining technique.

4. Observation of bacterial and actinomycetous colonies.

5. Demonstration of bacterial colonies by potato culture technique.

6. Study of viral plant disease symptoms e.g. tobacco mosaic and bean mosaic, Acalyphya mosaic etc.

7. Demonstration of microbial products e.g. yoghurt, cheese and antibiotic.

Mycology: 25 Marks

1. Techniques for preparing temporary slides of fungal specimens for microscopic examination.

2. Preparation of lactophenol and cotton blue

3. Laboratory study of the following fungi:

Synchytrium, Albugo, Rhizopus, Mucor, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Ascobolus, Puccinia, Agaricus, Fusarium, Alternaria, Collectotrichum, Cercospora, Polyporus

4. Study of lichen (crustose, foliose and fruticose)

5. Demonstration of fungal products e.g. bread, alcohol, citric acid and yeast grain.

Phycology: 25 Marks

1. Preparation of fixatives used in algal preservation

2. Collection and preservation of algae from various habitats.

3. Study of the genera covered in the theory with emphasis on both vegetative and reproductive structures.

4. Study of planktonic, benthic, terrestrial, sub-aerial, epiphytic, epizoic, marine and brackish water algae.

5. Local excursion.

Instruction to the Examiners

Subject Code: Subject Title: Microbiology, Mycology & Phycology

Time: 6 hours Marks: 75

1. Specimen “A” will be a pure / potato culture of bacteria

Distribution of marks Marks

(i) Preparation of slide --------------- 3.0

(ii) Neat labelled diagrams --------------- 2.0

(iii) Description --------------- 2.0

(iv) Comments --------------- 1.0

Total 8.0

2. Specimen “B” will be curd / nodule

Distribution of marks Marks

(i) Preparation of slide --------------- 3.0

(ii) Neat labelled diagrams --------------- 2.0

(iii) Description --------------- 2.0

(iv) Comments --------------- 1.0

Total 8.0

3. Comment on C, D, E and F 1.0 × 4 = 4.0

C will be bacterial or actinomycetous colony or slide

D & E will be microbial products e.g. antibiotics, cheese, curd, root nodule

F will viral plant disease symptoms e.g. tobacco mosaic, bean mosaic, Acalypha mosaic etc.

Mycology

4. Specimen “G” and “H” Will be fungal specimens or fungal culture

Distribution of marks Marks

(i) Preparation of slide --------------- 2.0

(ii) Neat labelled diagrams --------------- 2.0

(iii) Identifying characters --------------- 2.0

(iv) Identify genus with class --------------- 1.0

Total 7.0 × 2 = 14.0

5. Specimen I, J, K and L will be samples of fungi and fungal products (bread, alcohol, citric acid and yeast grain).

Distribution of marks Marks

(i) Identifying characters --------------- 1.0

(ii) Identification --------------- 0.5

Total 1.5 × 4 = 6.0

Phycology

6. Specimen “M” will be a mixture of algae of different classes (Spirogyra and Hydrodictyon must not be given and students must have to present three genera from three different classes)

Distribution of marks Marks

(i) Preparation of slide --------------- 1.0

(ii) Neat labelled diagrams --------------- 2.0

(iii) Identifying characters --------------- 2.0

(iv) Identify genus with class --------------- 1.0

Total 6.0 × 3 = 18.0

7. Specimen N and O will be algal specimens or algal slides

Distribution of marks Marks

(i) Identifying characters --------------- 1.5

(ii) Identification --------------- 1.0

Total 1.5 × 2 = 3.0

8. Collection (Mycology & Phycology) --------------- 6.0

9. Practical Note Book (Microbiology, Mycology& Phycology) --------------- 8.0

 


Paper Code

Paper Title

Marks

Credits

Class Hours

212807

Chemistry-I

100

4

60

 

1. Measurements and the Scientific Method: Measurements, units, SI units, reliability of measurements – precision and accuracy, rounding off, significant figures, significant figures in calculation, mean and median, errors, sources of errors.

2. Structure of atom: Atom, isotopes, Atomic masses, Mass spectroscopy, Atomic nucleus, Nuclear binding energy, Nuclear reactions –fission and Fusion reactions, Bohr atom model, Spectrum of atomic hydrogen, Dual nature of electron, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, Quantum numbers, Atomic orbitals, Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle, Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity, Electronic configuration of atoms.

3. Periodic Table: Periodic law, Periodic table, Electronic configurations from the periodic table, Periodic properties of the elements such as ionization energies, Electron affinity, Electro negativity, Atomic/ionic radius along a period and down a group, Diagonal relationship

4. Chemical Bonds: Chemical bond, Types of chemical bonds – ionic, Covalent coordination, Metallic, Hydrogen, Polar and no polar covalent bonds, Lewis dot structure, Shapes of molecules, VSEPR theory, Valence bond theory, Hybridization, ó- and ð-bonding in compounds, Molecular orbital theory.

5. Oxidation and reduction: Redox reactions, Writing and balancing Redox reactions,

6. States of Matter: Comparison between solids, Liquids and gases, Changes of state, m.p. and b.p, phase transition, Phase diagram of water.

7. Gaseous and Their Properties: The gas laws , The perfect gas equation, the kinetic theory of

gases, Van der waals equations, Real gases, Graham’s laws of diffusion and Effusion.

8. Solutions: Solubility and intermolecular forces, Solubility product, types of concentration units,

Colligative properties of solutions, Henry’s law, Nernst distribution law.

9. Acids and Bases: Various concepts on acids and bases, Conjugate acids and bases, Neutralization reactions acid- base strength, pH, Acid-base titrations, Acid-base indicators, Acid-base properties of salts, The common ion effect, Buffer solutions, Hard and soft acids and bases.

10. Chemical Equilibrium: Reversible reactions and the equilibrium state, the equilibrium law, Reaction quotients and equilibrium constants, Calculations using Kc, Kp, Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria, The principle of Le Chatelier and Brown.

11. Hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbons, Saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, Alkanes, Alkenes, And Alkynes, Nomenclature of organic compounds-the IUPAC system natural gas, Petroleum, Petrochemicals.

12. Study of different classes of organic Compounds: Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, Esters, Amines and Amides.

Books recommended:

1. General Chemistry, D. D. Ebbing, Houghton Miffin Co.

2. Chemistry – The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, M. Siberberg. WCB /Mc Graw- Hill.

3. Introduction to Modern Inogranic Chemistry, S.Z. haider, Friends’ International.

4. Principles of physical chemistry, M. M. Huque and M. A Nawab, students’ publications.

5. Essentials of Physical chemistry, B.S Bahl, G.D Tuli and A Bahl, S. Chand & Co.Ltd.

6. Advanced Organic Chemistry, B.S. Bahl and A Bahl, S. Chand & Co. Ltd.

7. A Level chemistry by C.W. Ramsden

8. Organic Chemistry: T Morrison and R.N Boyed,

9. Fundamental of Organic Chemistry by W Solomons

 


Paper Code

Paper Title

Marks

Credits

Class Hours

212808

Chemistry-I Practical

50

2

30

 

1. Preparation of FeSO4 7H2O, Mohr’s salt and potash alum.

2. Separation and identification of four radicals from a mixture of anions and cations The cations are pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ , Al3+ , Fe2+ , Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ Ca2+, Ba2+, Na+, K+ , and NH4 + , the anions are NO3, CO32-, S2-, SO42-, Cl- , Br and I+

3. Standardization of NaOH solution using standard oxalic acid solution,

4. Determination of Fe2+ using standard permanganate solution 5.

Iodometric determination of copper(II) using standard Na2SO3 solution.

6. Gravimetric determination of nickel as Ni(HDMG)2 complex 7.

Determination of the enthalpy change for the decomposition sodium dicarbonate into sodium carbonate.

8. Determination of the pH- neutralization curves of a strong acid by a strong base.

9. Investigation of the conductance behaviour of electrolytic solution and applications (acetic acid)

10. Determination of the presence of nitrogen, halogen and sulphur in organic compounds.

11. Identification of the functional groups (unsaturation, alcohol, phenol, carbonyl, aldehlyde, ketone,

carboxylic acid, aromatic amine, amide and nitro- groups) in organic compound.

Books Recommended:

1. A Text Book of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis, A.I. Vogel, 3rd/4th edition, ELBS and Longman Green & Co. Ltd.

2. A Text Book of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis, A.I. Vogel 3rd /4th edition, ELBS and Longman Green & Co. Ltd.

3. Practical physical chemistry, A Faraday.

4. A Text Book of practical organic chemistry, A.I. Vogel, ELBS edition.

 


Paper Code

Paper Title

Marks

Credits

Class Hours

213105

Zoology –I

100

4

60

 

Group-A: Introduction to Zoology: Protozoa and non-chordates

Introduction to Zoology: Definition and scope of zoology. Foundation of animal life: Level of organization (protoplasmic, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, species, individual, population, community, fauna, biota, ecosystem, biosphere, biodiversity. Cells: Cell and cell theory, structure and functions of cell organelles. Gametogenesis: Spermatogenesis and oogenesis; placentation. Classification of animals: Animal kingdoms; classification up to phyla on the basis of organization, symmetry, coelom and phylogeny; different taxa and Linnean hierarchy and nomenclature.

Protozoa and non-chordates: General characteristics of the following protozoa and non-chordates phyla with examples – Apicomplexa, Ciliophora, Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, Gastrotricha, Nematomorpha, Rotifera, Acanthocephala, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida, Supuncula, Pogonophora, Tardigrada, Onychophora, Phoronida, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa/Ectoprocta,

General and diagnostic characteristics of the following phyla with examples – Sarcomastigophora, Annelida, Arthropoda and Mollusca.

Type study of the following with their systematic position, habitats, external morphology, organ systems such as digestion, movement, circulation, respiration, excretion, nervous, and reproduction; food and feeding habits, mode of life and development –

a. Phylum Sarcomastigophora: Euglena

b. Phylum Apicomplexa: Eimeria

c. Phylum Ciliophora: Paramecium

d. Phylum Porifera: Scypha

e. Phylum Cnidaria: Obelia

f. Phylum Nematoda: Ascaris

g. Phylum Mollusca: Pila

h. Phylum Arthropoda: Prawn

i. Phylum Echinodermata: Astropecten

j. Phylum Hemichordata: Balanoglossus.

Group-B: Human Physiology and Applied Zoology

Human Physiology: Outline of the physiology of digestion, blood circulation, respiration, excretion and reproduction; endocrine glands and their functions; vitamins and vitamin deficiency diseases.

Applied Zoology: Introduction to the major fields of applied zoology: Entomology, Fisheries Biology, Wildlife Biology, and Parasitology. Agricultural pests: Major pests of rice, jute, sugarcane and stored grains. Integrated fish farming: Types, poultry, livestock and paddy-cum-fish culture. Poultry farming: System of poultry farming, diseases of poultry and their control, economic importance of poultry and their impacts on socio-economic condition of Bangladesh.

 



Paper Code

Paper Title

Marks

Credits

Class Hours

213106

Zoology Practical-I

100

4

60

 

1. Study of museum specimens: Representative of all major non-chordate phyla (minimum 20 specimens to be studied).

2. Study of permanent slides: Whole mount, body parts and various cells and invertebrate

tissues (at least 10 slides to be studied)

a. Whole animals – representatives of protozoans, rotifers and arthropods.

b. Mouth parts of arthropods.

c. Parasites – nematodes and platyhelminths.

d. Different larval forms of invertebrates.

e. Histological slides of invertebrates.

3. Preparation and study of whole mounts of different non-chordates.

4. External morphology and dissection of various organ systems of earthworm, cockroach, prawn, Pila and Lam ellidens.

  1. Digestive system of prawn, Pila and Lamellidens.
  2. Nervous system of cockroach, grasshopper, prawn, Pila and Lamellidens.

5. Temporary mounting –

a. Brain of earthworm.

b. Salivary gland of cockroach.

c. Statocyst of prawn.

6. Study of appendages of prawn.

7. Animal physiology –

a. Estimation of blood pressure and pulse rate.

b. Determination of blood group.

8. Class records.

Distribution of Marks for First Year Final Examination

1. Major dissection (dissection 8 + display 2 + drawing and labeling 3) = 13 marks.

2. Temporary mount (staining, mounting and display 3 + drawing and labeling 2) = 5 marks.

3. Spotting of museum specimens – 8 items (identification and classification 1 + diagnostic

characteristics 1) = 16 marks.

a. Invertebrate specimens (4 items) 2 × 4 = 8 marks.

b. Whole mount slides (mouth parts, parasites, larvae) (2 items) 2 × 2 = 4 marks.

c. Histological slides (2 items) 2 × 2 = 4 marks.

4. Appendages (detachment, placement and drawing on a paper sheet 3, labeling 2, displaying 1) = 6 marks.

5. Class records = 10 marks.

Books Recommended:

  1. C.P. Hickman and L.S Roberts. 1995. Animal Diversity Wm.C. Brown
  2. L.S. Dillon. 1976. Animal Variety: An Evolutionary Account: Wm C. brown Company Publishers, Dubuque, Iwoa.
  3. J.D. Bernal. 1969. The Origin of Life. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London.
  4. E.E. Ruppert and R.D. Barnes. 1994. Invertebrate Zoology (6th edition). Saunders College Publishing-harcourt Brace College Publishers, New York, London
  5. C.P. Hickman. Integrated Principles of Zoology, C.V. Morsby Co. Inc., New York A.J. Marshal and W.D. Williams. Text Book of Zoollogy Invertebrates, (edited the 7th edition of Text Book of Zoology, Vol. I,T.J. Parker and W.A. Haswell)
  6. N.J. Reigle. A Synoptic Introduction to the Animal Kingdom.
  7. E.O. Wilson, T, Eisner and W.R. Brigges, Life: Cells, Organisms Populations. C.C. Chatterjee Human Physiology Vols. I & II
  8. W.H. Davson . A Text Book of General Physiology
  9. G.L. Presser and P.A. Brown Comparative Animal Physiology
  10. B.I. balinsky. An Introduction of Embryology
  11. D. Dent. Insect Pest Management. Chapman and Hall, London.
  12. P. Southgalte and J. Lucas (eds), 1998. Aquaculture Fish and Shellfish Farming Fishing News.
  13. M. King. 1995. Fisheries Biology Assessment and Management. Blackwell Science.
  14. C.G. Scalet. L.D. Flake and D.W. Willis. 1996. Introduction to Wildlife and Fisheries: An Integrated Approach. W.H. Freeman.
  15. TVR. Pillay. 1993. Aquaculture: Principles and Practices. Fishing News Books.
  16. L.P. Pedigo. Entomology and Pest Management.
  17. R.Wall and D. Shearer, 1997. Vetenerary Entomology. Chapman & Hall
  18. V.G. Jingran and R.S.V. Pull in 1985. A Hatchery Manual for the Common, Chinese and Indian Major Carps. ADB/ICLARM
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  21. GBP. Gg. †gv¯—dv | 1994| Lvgv‡i nuvm-gyiMx cvjb I †ivM-e¨vwai wPwKrmv| evsjv GKv‡Wgx|

 


Paper Code

211501

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Paper Title:

History of the Emergence of Independent Bangladesh

 

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M) ALÛ ¯^vaxb evsjv ivóª MV‡bi D‡`¨vM, 1947 I cwiYwZ

N) cvwK¯—vb m„wó, 1947

3| cvwK¯—vb: ivóªxq KvVv‡gv I ˆelg¨

K) †K›`ªxq I cÖv‡`wkK KvVv‡gv

L) mvgwiK I †emvgwiK AvgjvZ‡š¿i cÖfve

M) A_©‰bwZK, mvgvwRK I mvs¯‹…wZK ˆelg¨

4| fvlv Av‡›`vjb I evOvwji AvZ¥cwiPq cÖwZôv

K) gymwjg jx‡Mi kvmb I MYZvwš¿K ivRbxwZi msMÖvg

L) AvIqvgx jx‡Mi cÖwZôv, 1949

M) fvlv Av‡›`vjb: cUf~wg I NUbv cÖevn

N) nK-fvmvbx-†mvnivIqv`©xi hy³d«›U, 1954 mv‡ji wbe©vPb I cwiYwZ

5| mvgwiK kvmb: AvBqye Lvb I Bqvwnqv Lv‡bi kvmbvgj (1958-71)

K) mvgwiK kvm‡bi msÁv I ˆewkó¨

L) AvBqye Lv‡bi ¶gZv `Lj I kvm‡bi ˆewkó¨ (ivR‰bwZK wbcxob, †gŠwjK MYZš¿, a‡g©i

ivR‰bwZK e¨envi)

M) AvBqye Lv‡bi cZb I Bqvwnqv Lv‡bi kvmb, GK BDwbU wejywßKiY, mve©Rbxb †fvUvwaKvi, GjGdI (Legal Framework Order)

6| RvZxqZvev‡`i weKvk I ¯^vwaKvi Av‡›`vjb

K) mvs¯‹…wZK AvMÖvm‡bi wei“‡× cÖwZ‡iva I evOvwj ms¯‹…wZi D¾xeb

L) †kL gywReyi ingv‡bi 6-`dv Av‡›`vjb

M) 6-`dv Av‡›`vj‡bi cÖwZwµqv, ¸i“Z¡ I Zvrch©

N) AvMiZjv gvgjv, 1968

7| 1969-Gi MYAfy¨Ìvb I 11-`dv Av‡›`vjb

K) cUf~wg

L) Av‡›`vj‡bi Kg©m~Px, ¸i“Z¡ I cwiYwZ

8| 1970 Gi wbe©vPb, Amn‡hvM Av‡›`vjb I e½eÜzi ¯^vaxbZv †NvlYv

K) wbe©vP‡bi djvdj Ges Zv †g‡b wb‡Z †K‡›`ªi A¯^xK…wZ

L) Amn‡hvM Av‡›`vjb, e½eÜzi 7B gv‡P©i fvlY, Acv‡ikb mvP©jvBU

M) e½eÜzi ¯^vaxbZv †NvlYv I †MÖdZvi

9| gyw³hy× 1971

K) MYnZ¨v, bvix wbh©vZb, kiYv_©x

L) evsjv‡`k miKvi MVb I ¯^vaxbZvi †NvlYvcÎ

M) ¯^Z:ù‚Z© cÖv_wgK cÖwZ‡iva I msMwVZ cÖwZ‡iva (gyw³‡dŠR, gyw³evwnbx, †Mwijv I m¤§yL hy×)

N) gyw³hy‡× cÖPvi gva¨g (¯^vaxb evsjv †eZvi †K›`ª, we‡`kx cÖPvi gva¨g I RbgZ MVb)

O) QvÎ, bvix I mvaviY gvby‡li Ae`vb (MYhy×)

P) gyw³hy‡× e„nrkw³ I gymwjg ivóª mg~‡ni f~wgKv

Q) `Lj`vi evwnbx, kvwš—KwgwU, Avje`i, Avjkvgm, ivRvKvi evwnbx, ivR‰bwZK `j I †`kxq

Ab¨vb¨ mn‡hvMx‡`i ¯^vaxbZvwe‡ivax Kg©KvÛ I eyw×Rxex nZ¨v

R) cvwK¯Ív‡b ew›` Ae¯’vq e½eÜzi wePvi I wek¦cÖwZwµqv

S) cÖevmx evOvwj I we‡k¦i wewfbœ †`‡ki bvMwiK mgv‡Ri f~wgKv

T) gyw³hy‡× fvi‡Zi Ae`vb

U) †hŠ_ evwnbx MVb I weRq

V) ¯^vaxbZv msMÖv‡g e½eÜzi †bZ…Z¡ Ges Ae`vb

10| e½eÜz †kL gywReyi ingv‡bi kvmbKvj, 1972-1975

K) ¯^‡`k cÖZ¨veZ©b

L) msweavb cÖYqb

M) hy× weaŸ¯— †`k cybM©Vb

N) mcwiev‡i e½eÜz nZ¨v I Av`wk©K cUcwieZ©b

History of the Emergence of Independent Bangladesh

Introduction: Scope and description of the emergence of Independent Bangladesh.

1. Description of the country and its people.

a. Geographical features and their influence.

b. Ethnic composition.

c. Language.

d. Cultural syncretism and religious tolerance.

e. Distinctive identity of Bangladesh in the context of undivided Bangladesh.

2. Proposal for undivided sovereign Bengal and the partition of the Sub Continent, 1947.

a. Rise of communalism under the colonial rule,

b. Lahore Resolution 1940.

c. The proposal of Suhrawardi and Sarat Bose for undivided Bengal : consequences

d. The creation of Pakistan 1947.

3. Pakistan: Structure of the state and disparity.

a. Central and provincial structure.

b. Influence of Military and Civil bureaucracy.

C. Economic, social and cultural disparity

4. Language Movement and quest for Bengali identity

a. Misrule by Muslim League and Struggle for democratic politics.

b. Foundation of Awami league, 1949

c. The Language Movement: context and phases.

d. United front of Haque – Vasani – Suhrawardi: election of 1954, consequences.

5. Military rule: the regimes of Ayub Khan and Yahia Khan (1958-1971)

a. Definition of military rules and its characteristics.

b. Ayub Khan’s rise to power and characteristics of his rule (Political repression, Basic democracy, Islamisation)

c. Fall of Ayub Khan and Yahia Khan’s rule (Abolition of one unit, universal suffrage, the Legal Framework Order)

6. Rise of nationalism and the Movement for self determination.

a. Resistance against cultura l aggression and resurgence of Bengali culture.

b. The six point movement of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman

c. Reactions; Importance and significance of the six Point movement.

d. The Agortola Case1968.

7. The mass-upsurge of 1969 and 11 point movement:

a. background

b. programme significance and consequences.

8. Election of 1970 Non-cooperation movement of March 1971 and the Declaration of Independence by Bangobondhu

a. Election result and centres refusal to comply

b. The non co-operation movement, the 7th March Address of Bangobondhu, Operation Searchlight

c. Declaration of Independence by Bangobondhu and his arrest

9. The war of Liberation 1971

a. Genocide, repression of women, refugees

b. Formation of Bangladesh government and proclamation of Independence

c. The spontaneous early resistance and subsequent organized resistance (Mukti

Fouz, Mukti Bahini, guerillas and the frontal warfare)

d. Publicity Campaign in the war of Liberation (Shadhin Bangla Betar Kendra, the

Campaigns abroad and formation of public opinion)

e. Contribution of students, women and the masses (Peoples war)

f. The role of super powers and the Muslim states in the Liberation war.

g. The Anti-liberation activities of the occupation army, the Peace Committee, Al- Badar, Al- Shams, Rajakars, pro Pakistan political parties and Pakistani Collaborators, killing of the intellectuals.

h. Trial of Bangabondhu and reaction of the World Community.

i. The contribution of India in the Liberation War

j. Formation of joint command and the Victory

k. The overall contribution of Bangabondhu and his leadership in the Independence struggle.

10. The Bangabondhu Regime 1972-1975

a. Homecoming

b. Making of the constitution

c. Reconstruction of the war ravaged country

d. The murder of Bangabondhu and his family and the ideological turn-around.

mnvqK MÖš’

  1. bxnvi iÄb ivq, evOvjxi BwZnvm, †`Õ R cvewjwks, KjKvZv 1402 mvj|
  2. mvjvn& DwÏb Avn‡g` I Ab¨vb¨ (m¤úvw`Z), evsjv‡`‡ki gyw³ msMÖv‡gi BwZnvm 1947-1971, AvMvgx cÖKvkbx, XvKv 2002|
  3. wmivRyj Bmjvg (m¤úvw`Z), evsjv‡`‡ki BwZnvm 1704-1971, 3 LÛ, GwkqvwUK †mvmvBwU Ae evsjv‡`k, XvKv 1992|
  4. W. nvi“b-Ai-iwk`, evsjv‡`k: ivRbxwZ, miKvi I kvmbZvwš¿K Dbœqb 1757-2000, wbD GR cvewj‡KkÝ, XvKv 2001|
  5. W. nvi“b-Ai-iwk`, evOvwji ivóªwPš—v I ¯^vaxb evsjv‡`‡ki Af~¨`q, AvMvgx cÖKvkbx, XvKv 2003|
  6. W. nvi“b-Ai-iwk`, e½eÜzi Amgvß AvZ¥Rxebx cybcv©V, w` BDwbfvwm©wU †cÖm wjwg‡UW, XvKv 2013|
  7. W. AvZdzj nvB wkejx I W.†gvt gvneyei ingvb, evsjv‡`‡ki mvsweavwbK BwZnvm 1773-1972, m~eY© cÖKvkb, XvKv 2013|
  8. gybZvwmi gvgyb I RqšÍ Kzgvi ivq, evsjv‡`‡ki wmwfj mgvR cÖwZôvi msMÖvg, Aemi, XvKv 2006|
  9. AvwZDi ingvb, Amn‡hvM Av‡›`vj‡bi w`b¸wj: gyw³hy‡×i cÖ¯‘wZ ce©, mvwnZ¨ cÖKvk, XvKv 1998|
  10. W. †gvt gvneyei ingvb, evsjv‡`‡ki BwZnvm, 1905-47, Zvgªwjwc, XvKv 2011|
  11. W. †gvt gvneyei ingvb, evsjv‡`‡ki BwZnvm, 1947-1971, mgq cÖKvkb, XvKv 2012|
  12. ‰mq` Av‡bvqvi †nv‡mb, evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv hy‡× civkw³i f~wgKv, Wvbv cÖKvkbx, XvKv 1982|
  13. Aveyj gvj Ave`yj gywnZ, evsjv‡`k: RvwZiv‡óªi D™¢e, mvwnZ¨ cÖKvk, XvKv 2000|
  14. ‡kL gywReyi ingvb, Amgvß AvZ¥Rxebx, w` BDwbfvwm©wU †cÖm wjwg‡UW, XvKv 2012|
  15. wmivR D`&`xb Avn‡g`, GKvˇii gyw³hy×: ¯^vaxb evsjv‡`‡ki Af~¨`q, BmjvwgK dvD‡Ûkb, XvKv 2011|
  16. RqšÍ Kzgvi ivq, evsjv‡`‡ki ivR‰bwZK BwZnvm, myeY© cÖKvkb, XvKv 2010|
  17. Harun-or-Roshid, The Foreshadowing of Bangladesh: Bengal Muslim League and Muslim Politics, 1906-1947, The University Press Limited, Dhaka 2012.
  18. Rounaq Jahan, Pakistan: Failure in National Integration, The University Press Limited, Dhaka 1977.
  19. Talukder Maniruzzaman, Radical Politics and the Emergence of Bangladesh, Mowla, Brothers, Dhaka 2003.
  20. ‡gmevn Kvgvj I Ckvbx PµeZx©, bv‡Pv‡ji K…lK we‡`ªvn, mgKvjxb ivRbxwZ I Bjv wgÎ, DËiY, XvKv 2008|

21. ‡gmevn Kvgvj, Avmv` I Ebmˇii MYAfy¨Ìvb, weeZ©b, XvKv 1986|

 

Botany Syllabus Hons 4th year-2009-10

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

 

 

 

Fourth Year Syllabus

Department of Botany

 

Four Year B.Sc. Honours (Integrated) Course

Effective from the Session : 2009–2010


 

National University

Subject: Botany

Syllabus for Four Year B.Sc. Honours Course

Effective from 2009-2010 Session

Course content and marks distribution

Fourth Year

 

 

Course Code

Course Title

Marks

Credits

3082

Plant Physiology

100

4

3083

Plant Biochemistry

100

4

3084

Ecology and Environmental Science

100

4

3085

Limnology & Aquaculture and Soil & Plant Nutrition

100

4

3086

Plant Breeding and Biostatistics

100

4

3087

Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics

100

4

3088

Plant Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering

100

4

3089

Research Methodology

50

2

3090

Practical Course- I

75

3

3091

Practical Course- II

75

3

1582

History of the Emergence of Independent Bangladesh

100

4

3092

Viva-voce

50

2

Total =

1050

42

 

 


 

Detailed Syllabus

 

 





Course Code

3082

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

Plant Physiology

 

 

1. Life-related physico-chemical phenomena: Physiology and life, colloids, diffusion, osmosis, plasmolysis, imbibition, osmotic pressure and root pressure.

2. Absorption of water: mechanism of absorption, active and passive absorption, external factors affecting absorption of water; translocation of water, path of translocation of water, mechanism of translocation, different theories on transpiration pull and adhesion-cohesion theory.

3. Transpiration: Overview of transpiration, types of transpiration, mechanism of trans piration, mechanism of opening and closing of stomata, significance of transpiration.

4. Photosynthesis: Overview of photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, light dependent reaction: action of light, photophosphorylation, light independent reaction: assimilation of CO2, Calvin cycle, Hatch and Slack cycle, Crasssulacean acid metabolism; comparison fo C3, C4 and CAM path ways, factors affecting photosynthesis.

5. Respiration and fermentation: Definition and types of respiration, glycolysis, pyruvate to acetyl CoA formation, TCA cycle, electron transport system, respiratory quotient, anaerobic respiration; definition of fermentation, alcohol fermentation.

6. Plant Growth Regulators: Discovery, classification, distribution, chemical nature of plant growth regulators; physiological effects of auxin, gibberellins, cytokinine, abscisic acid.

7. Photoperiodism: An overview, photoperiodic induction, importance of dark period, critical photoperiod, perception of photoperiodic stimulus, discovery and distribution of phytochrome, physical and chemical properties of phytochrome, physiological effects of phytochrome.

8. Vernalization: Brif history, vernalization and flowering, site of perception of vernalization, mechanism of vernalization, devernalization, factors affecting vernalization.

9. Physiology of Seed: Seed structure and development, viability of seeds, germination process and types of germination, conditions necessary for germination; physiological, biochemical and other changes accompanying seed germination; overview of seed dormancy, causes of seed dormancy, methods of breaking dormancy, advantages of dormancy of seed.

10. Plant Growth: Plant growth curve, phases of growth; factors affecting plant growth, types and causes of senescence.

Books Recommended

1. Devlin, M.R. and H.F. Witham. 1986: Plant Physiology (4th. Ed.). CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.

2. Jain JL 1983, Fundamentals of Biochemistry, S. Chand and Company Ltd. New Dellhi.

3. Hess, D. 1975: Plant Physiology. Springer International Student Edition, New Delhi.

4. Pandey, S.N. and B.K. Sinha. 1990: Plant Physiology (2nd. Ed.). Vikash Pub. House Pvt. Ltd.

5. Salisbury, F.B. and C. Ross. 1969 : Plant Physiology. Wardsworth Pub. Co. Inc., Belmont, California.

6. Srivastava HS 1991. Elements of Biochemistry, Rastogi Publications, Shiraji Road, Meerut, India.

7. Kg©Kvi, h`yjvj. 2000 : Dw™¢` kixi weÁvb, nvmvb eyK nvDR, XvKv|

 

 


Course Code

3083

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

Plant Biochemistry

 

 

  1. Introduction: Name and distribution of biochemical substances in plants.
  2. Carbohydrate: Introduction to carbohydrates, types of carbohydrates, chemistry and distributions of monosaccharides, oligosaccharides (sucrose, maltose, lactose and cellobiose) and polysaccharides (starch, cellulose and glycogen).
  3. Amino acids: General structure, classification of amino acids, essential and non essential amino acids, protein and non-protein amino acids, industrial importance of amino acids.
  4. Proteins: Biochemistry, structure, classification, functions of proteins.
  5. Lipids: Overview of lipids, Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, structure and functions of triglycerides, phospholipids, glycolipids, oxidation of fatty acids.
  6. Membrane Chemistry: Chemical nature of plasma membrane, structure and functions.
  7. Enzymes: Overview of enzymes, classification kinetics of enzymes. structure and mechanisms, (lock and key model, induced fit model), holoenzyme and apoenzyme, coenzyme and cofactors, enzyme inhabitors.
  8. Terpenoids: Main classes of plant terpenoids, path of terpenoid biosynthesis in plants; essential oils; di-terpenoids and gibberellins; tri-terpenoids and steroids; tetraterpenoids-carotenoids.
  9. Alkaloids: History, chemistry, distribution, classification, major alkaloids and their plant families, importance of alkaloids.
  10. Phenolic Compounds: Introduction to phenolic compounds, shikinic acid pathway, Flavonoids: chemistry and distributions, properties of the different flavonoid classes, anthocyanisns, importance of phenolic compounds.
  11. Vitamins: Introduction to vitamin, source and types of vitamins, importance.
  12. Principles of Some Biochemical Methodologies: Spectrophotometry, Centrifugation, Chromatography.

Books Recommended :

1 Conn EE and PK Stumpf 1972. Outlines of Biochemistry (3rd edn.), John Wiley & Sons.Inc.

2 Goodwin, T.W. and E.I. Mereer. 1983: Introduction to Plant Biochemistry (2nd. Ed.). Pergamon Press.

3 Harborne JB 1973. Phytochemical methods. Chapman and Hill, London.

4 Jain, J. L. 1983: Fundamental of Biochemistry (2nd. Ed.). S. Chand and Co. Ltd. New Delhi.

5 Lehninger AL 2005. Principles of Biochemistry (4th edn.), Freeman and Company, New York.

6 Mahler HR and EH Cordes 1971. Biological Chemistry, 2nd edn., Harper and Row.

7 Sivastava, H.S. 1990: Elements of Biochemistry. Rastogi Publication, Meerut.

8 Varner, J.E. and J. Bonner. 1965: Plant Biochemistry. Acad. Press, New York, London.

 

 


Course Code

3084

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

Ecology and Environmental Science

 

 

A. Ecology (Marks 60)

1. Introduction: Definition, history and scope of Ecology.

2. Plant succession: Types and causes of succession, hydrosere and xerosere.

3. Ecosystem: Definition, structure, components, functions and types of ecosystem; habitat and ecological niche; trophic level and trophic stucture; energy flow in ecosystem; food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids, ecological efficiencies, dynamics of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

4. Plant adaptations: Morphological, anatomical and physiological adaptive features of hydrophytes, xerophytes, mesophytes.

5. Forest ecology: Introduction to forest, types of forest, dominant plants of deciduous, semi-evergreen and tidal forest of Bangladesh and their edaphic features..

6. Phytogeographical region of world: Brief account of Phytogeograhpical regions of the world and Indian sub-continent, interactions among floristic plant geography.

7. Methods of studying vegetation: Quantitative and qualitative analysis, measurements of vegetation by quadrate, transect and point methods, Study of communities, community dynamics, classification of community.

8. Role of green plants in nature with reference to : i) The sun- a thermonuclear energy source, ii) Radiant energy, iii) Human population and food supply.

9. Bio-geochemical cycles: Introduction to bio-geochemical cycles, types, carbon and nitrogen cycle.

Books Recommended

  1. Bannister, P. 1976: Introduction of Physiological Plant Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  2. Doubenmire, R. F. 1974: Plants and Environment. (3rd. Ed.). Wiley International .
  3. Daubenmire, R. F. 1974: Plant Communities – A Text Book of Synecology. Harper and Row Publ. London.
  4. Etherington, J. R. 1971: Environmental and Plant Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
  5. Kershaw, K. A. 1973: Quantitative and Dynamic Plant Ecology, Edward Arnold Ltd.
  6. Krebs, C. J. 1978: Ecology: The Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance, Harper International.
  7. Kumar, H. D. 1995: Modern Concepts of Ecology, Vikash Pub. House, India.
  8. Muller Dombois, D. and H. Ellenberg. 1974: Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology, John Wiley & Sons. Inc., New York.
  9. Odum, E. P. 1971: Fundamentals of Ecology. Toppan Co. Ltd. Japan.
  10. Poole, R. W. 1974: An Introduction of Quantitative Ecology. McGraw-Hill Book Co., NY.
  11. Sharma, P. D. 1995: Ecology and Environment. Rastogi Pub., New Delhi.
  12. Shukla and P. S. Chandel. 1991: Plant Ecology and Soil Science, S. Chand & Co., India.
  13. Waisel, J. 1972: Biology of Halophytes. Academic Press, London.

B. Environmental Science (Marks 40)

  1. Introduction: Definition, aims and objectives, plant and environmental relationship.
  2. Environmental components: Atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere and their importance.
  3. Natural resources: Concept and types- water, land, biological, mineral, energy, wildlife, ocean and human resources and their impact on environment.
  4. Global environmental issues: Population explosion, effects of population explosion on the environment.
  5. Drought and desertification: Drought and aridity index; drought and desertification caused by human activity; prevention and reversal of desertification.
  6. Pollution: Definition, types of pollutants and pollution; causes and effects of pollution; nature, sources and causes of water and air pollution, control of water and air pollution.
  7. Green house effects: Introduction to green house effects, sources and effects of green house gases, ozone layer depletion, green house gases and the world climate, control of green house gases, Carbon dioxide and the world climate.

Books Recommended.

1. Asthana, D. K. and M. Asthana. 1985: Environment : Problems and Solutions, S. Chand & Co.

2. Baldwin, J. H. 1988: Environmental Planning and Management. Int. Book. Dist.

3. Bhatia, H.S. 1998: A Text Book on Environmental Pollution and Control. Galgotia Pub.

4. Chiras, D.D. 1984: Environmental Science. The Benjamin Pub. Co. Inc.

5. Gain, P.S. Moral and P. Raj. 1998: Bangladesh-Environment: Pacing the 21st century. SHED, 44/D, West Panthapath, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.

6. Jeffries, M.J. 1997: Biodiversity and Conservation. Routledge, London and New York.

7. Kemp, D.D. 1990 : Global Environmental Issues. Routledge.

8. Pandey, G.N. 1999 : Environmental Management. Vikas Pub. House.

9. Santra, S.C. 2001 : Environmental Science. New Central Book Agency, Calcutta.

10. Shukla, R.S. and P. S. Chandel. 1991: Plant Ecology and Soil Science. S. Chand & Co., India.

11. Srivastava, N.Y. 1997 : Environmental Pollution. Ashish Pub. House.

12. Trivedi, R.N. 1997 : A Text Book of Environmental Science. Anmol Pub.

13. Watt, K. F. 1973 : Principles of Environmental Science. McGraw Hill Book Co. New York.

 

 


Course Code

3085

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

Limnology and Aquaculture and Soil & Plant Nutrition

 

 

A. Limnology and Aquaculture (Marks 60)

1. Introduction: Definition, history, classification and scope of limnology, Differences between hydrobiology and limnology, hydrologic cycle.

2. Distribution of fresh water: Ponds, lakes, rivers and estuaries, aquatic resources of Bangladesh.

3. Lakes: Definition, origin and distribution, lake basins, zonation and classification of lakes, Special types of lakes, important lakes of world, natural lakes of Bangladesh.

4. Physical factors of inland water: Light and water, source, quality and role of light in aquatic ecosystems, calculation in lentic and lotic waters, water color, thermal stratification and mixing, density of water, cohesion, viscosity and surface tension, classification of lakes depending of mixing, water movement and flow.

5. Chemical features of inland water: Dissolved oxygen, salinity, conductivity, carbonate, bicarbonate, pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, silica and diatom growth, trace elements.

6. Structure and productivity of aquatic habitat: Introduction to productivity, methods of measuring primary productivity of aquatic habitats.

7. Eutrophication: Brief account on eutrophication, causes and effects of eutrophication.

8. Aquatic flora: Phytoplankton, Algae, Macrophytes, aesthetic and economic value.

9. Aquaculture: Introduction to aquaculture and aquatic resource management, natural productivity of ponds/ lakes; maintenance and improvement of ponds/lakes and methods of phytoplankton culture.

Books Recommended

  1. Agarwal, K.C. : Limnology
  2. Goldman, C.R. and A.J. Horne. 1983: Limnology. McGraw Hill Inc. Book Co., Tokyo.
  3. Khan, M.S. and M. Halim. 1987: Aquatic angiosperms of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Naional Herbarium, BARC, Dhaka.
  4. Welch, S. Paul. 1952: Limnology. McGraw-Hill Book Co.
  5. Wetzel, R.G. 1983: Limnology, W.B. Saunders Co. London.
  6. Wetzel, R.G. and G.E. Likens. 1979: Limnological Analysis. W.B. Sunders Co. Philadelphia, USA.
  7. Cole,G.A. 1979:Text Book of Limnology. The Mosby Co. London
  8. L›`Kvi gwbi“¾vgvb, 1994 : wjg‡bvjRx, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖKvkbv, XvKv|

B. Soil & Plant Nutrition (Marks 40)

1. Soil: Soil as a natural body, dynamic nature of soil, major components of soil and soil profile.

2. Soil water: Forms, saturated and unsaturated water, field capacity, water flow/movement, water stress and water logging.

3. Soil organic matter: Definition, humus, humification and effects on soil properties.

4. Soil fertility and productivity: Concepts fertility and productivity relationships, soil fertility problems and management of saline, alkaline and acid soils; soil erosion and conservation.

5. Plant Nutrition: Introduction to plant nutrition, essential elements; criteria of essential elements; micronutrients and macronutrients, role and deficiency symptoms of essential elements.

6. Ion absorption of plants: Factor affecting ion absorption, barrier of ion absorption, structure of plasma membrane, mechanism and types of ion absorption, passive absorption (Donnan equilibrium and cation exchange theory), active absorption (evidence of active absorption; carrier concept; and anion respiration or Lundegardth theory).

7. Pathways of translocation of ions: Apoplastic and symplastic pathway, upward movement of ions.

8. Water and sand culture: Introduction to water and sand culture, techniques of water culture, advantages and disadvantages of water culture.

 

Books Recommended

1. Epstein, E. 1972. Mineral Nutrition of plants: Principles and Perspectives. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

2. Gauch, H.G. 1982. Inorganic Plant Nutrition. Dowdess, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc.

3. Marschner, H. 1992. Inorganic Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press, New York.

4. Sutchiffe. J.F. and F.S. Baker. 1984. Plants and Mineral Salts. Edward Arnold, London.

5. Hewitt, E.J. and T.A. Smith. 1974. Plant Mineral Nutrition. The English University Press, London.

 

 


Course Code

3086

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

Plant Breeding and Biostatistics

 

 

A. Plant Breeding (Marks 60)

1. Introduction: Definition, scope and objectives of Plant Breeding.

2. Origin and domestication of crops: Centre of origin of crop plants, importance of this concept in plant breeding, domestication of crops.

3. Plant genetic resources: Definition, collection, evaluation and conservation (ex situ and in situ) of germplasm, use of germplasm in plant breeding programmes.

4. Reproductive biology and plant breeding: Pollination mechanism in plant improvement, self incompatibility and male sterility and their significance in crop breeding.

5. Hybridization: Objectives, techniques and importance of artificial hybridization.

6. Breeding techniques in self and cross-pollinated crops: Method, merit and demerits of mass selection, pure line selection, pedigree method and bulk method.

7. Heterosis breeding: Introduction to heterosis, hybrid vigor and inbreeding depression, genetic basis of heterosis, achievements through heterosis breeding.

8. Mutation breeding: Introduction to mutations breeding, artificial induction of mutation in plants, use of induced mutation technique in crop improvement, limitations of mutation breeding.

9. Backcross breeding: Methods, merits and limitations of backcross breeding.

10. Breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses: Methods of breeding for disease, insect, drought and salinity resistance.

Books Recommended

  1. Allard, R. W. 1999: Principles of Plant Breeding. (3rd. Ed.). John Wiley & Sons. Inc., New York.
  2. Chaudhury, H.K. 1978: Elementary Principles of Plant Breeding. Oxford & IBH Pub. Co., New Delhi.
  3. Dana, S. 2001: Plant Breeding. Naya Udyog, Calcutta.
  4. Poehlman, J. M. and D. Borthakur. 1977: Breeding Asian Field Crops. Oxford and IBH Pub. Co., New Delhi.
  5. Simonds, N.W. 1979: Principles of Plant Improvement. Longman Group Ltd. London.
  6. Singh, B.D. 1995: Plant Breeding – Principles and Methods, (5th. Ed.). Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.
  7. Sinha, U. and S. Sinha. 1977 : Cytogenetics, Plant Breeding and Evolution, Vikas Publ. House, Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
  8. f~Bqv, Gg. Gm. ikx`. 1992 : Dw™¢` cÖRbb, evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv|

B. Biostatistics (Marks 40)

1. Introduction: Definition, need and scope of Biostatistics; continuous and discontinuous variables, population and samples, random samples.

2. Organization and Presentation of data: Collection and classification of data; tabular and graphical (histogram, frequency, polygon) representation of data.

3. Distributions: Symmetrical and asymmetrical distribution, characteristics and importance of normal and binomial distribution.

4. Measures of central tendency and dispersion: Mean, mode and median; range, variance, standard deviation, standard error, coefficient of variation.

5. Test of significance: Null hypothesis, test of significance, t-test and X2-test.

6. Measure of variable association: Simple correlation, scatter diagram, correlation coefficient, test of significance of correlation coefficient; linear regression, regression coefficient, regression equation, test of significance for regression coefficient.

7. Experimental and design: Analysis of variance; F-test; one and two way classification of variance; principles of experimental design; completely randomized design (CRD), randomized block design (RBD) and latin square design.

Books Recommended

  1. Gomez, A. and A. A. Gomez. 1984: Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  2. Panse, V. G. and P. V. Sukhatme. 1978: Statistical Methods (3rd. Ed.). Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.
  3. Verma, B. L., G.D. Shukla and R.N. Srivastava. 1993: Biostatistics. CBS Publication, Delhi.
  4. Zaman, S.M.H., K. Rahman and M. Howlader. 1980: Simple Lessons from Biometry. Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur.
  5. Avjx, Gg. Avkivd, 1979 : cwimsL¨vb weÁvb, evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv|
  6. f`ª, Gm. †K. 1992 : Rxe weÁvb cwi¶Y b·v|

 

 


Course Code

3087

Marks: 100

Credits: 4

Class Hours: 60

Course Title:

Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics

 

 

1. Introduction: Historical development, macromolecules and store of biological information, the basis of heredity, central dogma.

2. Bio-information molecules: Components, structure, biological and chemical properties of DNA, RNA and proteins.

3. DNA replication: Introduction to DNA replication, semi-conservative DNA replication, mechanism of DNA replication, circular DNA replication, significance of DNA replication.

4. Repair of damaged DNA molecules: Introduction to DNA repair, photoreactivation, excision repair, post-replication recombination repair and SOS repair.

5. Transcription: Transcription mechanism, post-transcriptional modification of RNAs, RNA splicing.

6. Translation: Genetic code, characteristic features of genetic code, code dictionary, mechanism of translation - aminoacylation, codon recognition and mechanism of protein synthesis.

7. Regulation of gene expression: General features of gene regulation, operon concept ( lac-operon, tryptophan operon).

8. Mutation: Characteristics and classification of mutation, point mutation, mutagenesis, site-specific mutagenesis.

9. Physical mapping and sequencing of genome: Restriction enzyme, DNA fingerprinting, basic DNA sequencing, modified chain terminator, automated DNA sequencing, sequencing strategy.

  1. Bioinformatics: Definition and basic knowledge about bioinformatics; information technology and biomolecular sequence analysis, similarity searches on sequence databases, pair-wise alignments, multiple sequence alignments, application of bioinformatics.


 

Books Recommended:

  1. D. Frefelder. 1990: Molecular Biology. Norosa Pub. House, New Delhi.
  2. Adams, Burdon. Compbell, Leader, Smellie. 1980: The Biochemistry of the Nucleic acids, (9th ed.), Chapman & Hall, London.
  3. B. Lewin. 1993, 1995: Gene IV and V. N.J. Willey & Sons. N. York.
  4. Alberts Bra, Lewis Raff Roberts and J. Watson, 1992: Molecular Biology of the Cell. (2nd. Ed.), Garland and Pub., New York..
  5. A.M.Lesk 2007. Introduction to Genomics. Oxford Univ. Press, London.
  6. A.M.Campbell and L.J.Heyer 2007. Discovering Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics. (2nd. Ed. Low Price Edition), Pearson Education, New Delhi.
  7. †gv¯—dv Kvgvj cvkv, 1998 Ges 2000| AvYweK Rxe weÁvb 1g,2q I 3q LÛ, evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv|